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Braun and Anderson - Pathophysiology: A clinical approach 2nd edition

Respiration differs from ventilation in that respiration involves:
a. movement and exchange of oxygen in the alveoli.
b. supplying oxygenated blood to the lungs and organ systems.
c. the mechanical process of moving air in and out of the respiratory system.
d. all of the body's cells and the utilization of oxygen to make energy.

D. All of the body's cells and the utilization of oxygen to make energy.

Ethan is sitting next to Ryan in class. Ethan has a cold and is coughing. Ryan is worried about catching a cold. You tell Ryan that the pulmonary system has defense mechanisms to help him stay healthy. These defense mechanisms include all of the following except:
a. macrophages in the alveoli.
b. chemoreceptors.
c. structural protections such as hair.
d. mucosal lining that has an immune coating.

B. Chemoreceptors.

Todd is competing in a 2K run for his track team. As Todd is completing his laps on the track, his body is regulating the rate and volume of his respirations. All of the following are important in this regulation except:
a. lung receptors
b. respiratory control center in the brain
c. diffusing capacity
d. chemoreceptors

C. Diffusing capacity

After surgery, Myron needed to have the oxygen saturation in his blood monitored for potential hypoxemia. The method most likely used in monitoring Myron is called:
a. pulse oximetry
b. ventilation oximetry
c. respiration observation
d. diffusion oximetry

A. Pulse oximetry

When the body cannot maintain homeostasis because of an alteration in ventilation and diffusion, all of the following will occur except:
a. hyperthermia
b. hypercapnia
c. hypoxia
d. hypoxemia

A. Hyperthermia

Andrea is sitting quietly reading in her chair. The amount of air that Andrea exhales after passive inspiration is called:
a. tidal volume
b. vital capacity
c. residual volume
d. total lung capacity

A. Tidal volume

The lipoprotein that coats the inner portion of the alveolus and promotes ease of expansion is called:
a. Ghon complex
b. Surfactant
c. Atopic protein
d. Marfan protein

B. Surfactant

Marlyn has pneumonia. He has decreased oxygen in the arterial blood and a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen. This decreased oxygen level is called:
a. Hypoxia
b. Hypercapnea
c. Hypoxemia
d. Aspiration

C. Hypoxemia

Because of Marlyn's pneumonia and the increased collection of fluid/pus in the alveoli, he will most likely experience impaired:
a. Inspiration
b. Expiration
c. Ventilation
d. Diffusion

D. Diffusion

Marlyn is experiencing a deprivation of adequate oxygen to his cells. This is called:
a. Hypoxia
b. Hypercapnea
c. Hypoxemia
d. Aspiration

A. Hypoxia

Marlyn is admitted to the hospital because of his pneumonia. He has impaired diffusion and ventilation with an increased amount of carbon dioxide level in his blood. This increased level of carbon dioxide in the blood is called:
a. Hypoxia
b. Hypercapnea
c. Hypoxemia
d. Aspiration

B. Hypercapnea

Marlyn experienced many local manifestations related to impaired ventilation and diffusion. All of the following would be considered local manifestations except:
a. Fever
b. Cough
c. Dyspnea
d. Excess mucous production

A. Fever

Marlyn complains of increased difficulty breathing when he is in a supine position and he prefers to have the head of his bed elevated. This need to sit upright is called:
a. Dyspnea
b. Hypoxemia
c. Hyperventilation
d. Orthopnea

D. Orthopnea

Anthony is experiencing an acute exacerbation of his asthma. When you observe his chest, you notice that he is using accessory muscles during respiration and observe a pulling of his intercostal muscles. You would describe this as:
a. Orthopnea
b. Subtractions
c. Retractions
d. Interactions

C. Retractions

When you auscultate Anthony's lung sounds, you hear wheezing. Altered breath sounds such as this are called:
a. Cavitations
b. Inspiration
c. Adventitious
d. Ventilation

C. Adventitious

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