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Chapter 14 The Digestive Sytem and Body Metabolism

Anatoy of the digestive system
STUDY
PLAY
The digestive system is responsible for many body processes. Its functions begins when food is taken into the mouth, or ____________
Oral Cavity
The process called ____________ occurs as food is broken down both chemically and mechanically
Digestion
For the broken down foods to be made available to the body cells, they must be absorbe dthrough the digestive system walls into the ___________
Blood
Undigestible food remains are removed, or _____________ from the body in ____________
Excreted, Feces
The organs forming a continuous tube from the mouth to the anus are collectively called the ___________
GI Tract OR Alimentary Control
Organs located outside the digestive tract proper, which secrete their products into the digestive tract, are referred to as ____________ digestive system organs
Accessory
Intestinal glands
produce an enzyme poor juice containing mucus found in the submucosa of the small intestine
Salivary glands
secretion includes amylase which begins starch digestion in the mouth
Pancreas
Ducts a variety of enzymes in an alkaline fluid into the duodenum via the bile duct
Liver
Produce bile, which is transported to the duodenum via the bile duct
Gastric Glands
Produce hydrochloric acis and pepsinogen
Structure that suspends the small intestione from the posterior body wall
Messentary
Finger like extensions of the intestinal mucosa that increase the surface area
Villi
Collections of lymphatic tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine
Plicae Circulares
Two anatomical regions involved in the physical breakdown of food
Oral cavity and Stomach
Organ that mixes food in the mouth
Tongue
Common passage for food and air
Pharynx
Three extensions/ modifications of the peritoneum
Greater Omentum
Lesser Omentum
Messentary
Literally a food chute has no digestive or absorptive role
Esophagus
Folds of the stomach mucosa
Rugae
Sac like out pocketings of the large intestinal wall
Haustra
Projections of the plasma membrane of a cell that increase the cells surface area
Microvilli
Prevents food from moving back into the small intestine once it has entered the large intestine
Ileocecal Valve
Organ responsible for most food and water absorption
Small Intestine
Organ primarily involved in water absorption and feces formation
Colon
Area between the teeth lips and cheeks
Vestibule
Blind sac hanging from the initial part of the colon
Appendix
Organ in which protein digestion begins
Stomach
Membrane attached to the lesser survature of the stomach
Lesser Omentum
Organ into which the stomach empties
Small Intestine
Sphincter controlling the movement of food from the stomach onto the dudenum
Plyoric Sphincter
Uvula hangs from its posterior edge
Soft Palate
Organ that recieves pancreatic juice and bile
Small Intestine
Serosa of the abdominal cavity wall
Parietal Peritoneum
Region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body
Anal Canal
Anterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity supported by bone
Hard palate
Ingestion
Eating
Propulsion
Swallowing, segmentation and peristalis
Mechanical digestion
Chew and Churn
Chemical digestion
enzymatic breakdown
Absorption
Nutrient Transport
Defecation
Feces Elimination
Starch digestion begins in the mouth when ________ is ducted in by the salivary glands
Salivary Amylase
Gastrin, which prods the stomach glands to produce more enzymes and HCI represents a ___________
Hormonal stimulus
The fact that the mere thought of a relished food can make your mouth water is an example of _______________
Psychological stimulus
Many people chew gum to increase saliva formation when their mouth is dry. This type of stimulus is a ____________
Mechanical stimulus
Protein foods are largely acted on in the stomach by _____________
Pepsin
For the stomach protein digesting enzymes to become active ________ is needed
HCI
Since living cells of the stomach are largely protein, it is amazing that they are not digested by the activity of stomach enzymes. The most important means of stomach protection is the __________ it produces
Mucus
A milk protein digesting enzyme found in children but uncommon in adults is __________
Kennin
The third layer of smooth muscle found in the stomach wall allows mixing and mechanical breakdown by _____________
Churning
Important intestinal enzymes are the ___________
Brush Border Enzymes
The small intestine is protected from the corrosive action of hydrochloric acid in chyme by _______________, which is ducted in by the pancreas
Bicarbonate Rich Fluid
The pancreas produces protein digesting enzymes, amylase, and mucleases. It is the only important source of ____________
Lipase
A non enzyme substance that causes fat to be dispersed into the smaller globules is ________
Bile
Inflammation of the abdominal serosa
Peritonitis
Condition resulting from the reflux of acidic gastric juice into the esophagus
Heart burn
Usually indicates liver problems or blockage of the biliary ducts
Jaundice
An erosion of the stomach or duodenal mucosa
Ulcer
Passage o watery stools
Diarrhea
Causes severe epigastric pain associated with prolonged storage of bile in the gallbladder
Gall Stones
Inability to pass feces often a result of poor bowel habits
Constipation
These two hormones stimulate the pancreas to release its secretions
cholecystokinin and secretin
This hormone stimulates increased production of gastric juice
Gastrin
This hormone causes the gallbladder to release stored bile
cholcystokinin
This hormone causes the liver to increase its output of bile
Secretin
The building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, or simple sugars. The three common simple sugars in out diet are ________ ___________ ___________
Galactose
Glucose
Fructose
Disaccharides include _________ __________ _________
Lactose
Maltose
Sucrose
Protein foods muct be digested to ___________ before they can be absorbed
Amino acids
Fats are broken down to two types of buildong blocks, __________ and glycerol
fatty acids
Of the simple sugars ____________ is most important because it is the sugar referred to as blood sugar
Glucose