While energy is a one-way flow through the ecosystem, ________ are cycled through?
What is the source of acid rain?
sulfur and nitrogen from industrial power plants
What chemical is released from smoke stacks?
When SO4 mixes with water what forms?
subtances that donates a proton
How can acids be diluted?
with water ot base
The more protons, the more _______ the acid.
What scale is used to measure the acidity of a susbstance?
A strong acid has a pH of ________.
less than 2
What is neutral on the pH scale?
What is the pH of normal rain?
What is the pH of rain falling in the northeast?
Burning fossil fuels realeases what 2 compounds?
sulfuric oxide and nitrogen oxide
What is the effect of tall chimneys on pollutants?
allows them to travel further from source
What are the first species to dissapper when lakes become acidified?
minos and microscopic organisms
What is the effect of water at a pH of 5.0 on crayfish and fish eggs?
softens the body and eggs do not hatch
Why are lakes hit with a pulse of acid in the spring?
snow melting which is acidic
What ion is freed apon acid rain interacting with soil?
Aluminum attacks the _____ of fish causing ________.
How does acid rain effect leaves?
bleaches nutrients of tree faster than it can be supplied
Name 3 nutrients leached from the soil by acid rain?
calcium, magnesium, and potassium
Acid rain mobilizes aluminum in the soil which blocks what from roots?
vital minerals/ removes the remaining soil nutrients
What is the only solution to acid rain?
counter attack at the source
Define acid rain.
condition particularly harmful to plants and aquatic life
microscopic particles made up of organic matter and clay
Define cation exchange.
weakly head cations are knocked off of micelles and replaced by more strongly held ones
High cation exchange capacity.
can neutralize rainwater acidity by taking up H+ and releasing Ca+2 and Mg+2
How did breathing into the test tube of tap water cause the solution to become acidic?
carbon dioxide combines with moisture to form dilute acid
Aquatic organisms such as the fish are hurt by acidic rain, but it's not the acid itself that's harmful but high concentration of metallic cations - such as aluminum - in lakes and streams that kill the fish. Where did the metals come from? Why does the concentration of the metals increase in areas affected by acidic rain?
comes from the soil, aluminum is more soluble and increases concentration to toxic levels
What gas does the burning match release?
How does this stimulate pollution that occurs in the environment?
the burning match mimics burning fossil fuels
Based on your observations, what was the effect of acid rain on chalk?
Based on the observations what effects would acid rain have on buildings and statues made from limestone?
it will dissolve them
From your observations what effect does acid rain have upon zinc?
will decay and erode eventually
This indicates rain effects metal how?
will weaken the metal
List (from worst to best) the ablilities of the three bedrock samples to neutralize acid rain.