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Exercises 6 - 10

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Kastle-Meyer
test is highly sensitive, being able to detect blood spots practically invisible to the human eye
Does a positive phenolphthalein test prove that a stain prove is caused by human blood? Explain.
no, it just proves that the blood had heme in it
Does a positive Khastle-Meyer prove that a stain is caused by blood? Explain.
no, the negative results means no color and no blood
Gas exchanged is called _______.
respiration
What gas is taken up during respiration?
oxygen
Exercise and just having eaten will cause the respiration rate to ________.
increase
If the metabolic rate increases, the respiration rate will _______.
increase
Oxygen and Carbon dioxide move in and out of the cell via _________.
diffusion
Insects take in gas through openings in the body wall called ________.
spiracles
What do acquatic species use for gas exchange?
gills
What is the biggest challenge in breathing air?
gas exchange surface has to remain moist
What does the scalpin use for breathing besides gills?
skin of the lining of the mouth
What respiratory functions do the nose and mouth have?
humidify and warm the air
What is the most important muscle of respiration?
diaphragm
What is the role of blood?
to transport oxygen to cells
Physical training can increase ________, _________, and __________.
mitochondria, respiratory enzymes, and capillaries
Aerobic metabolism uses ________.
oxygen
If not enough oxygen is available, cells switch to ________ respiration.
anerobic
Name the oxygen carrying protein.
hemoglobin
Myoglobin is an oxygen-storage protein found in _________.
muscles
While the mammal respiratory system is like a cul-de-sac, birds have a ___________.
flow-through system
Define gas exhange.
process by which organisms obtain oxygen from their environment and give off carbon dioxide
Define specialized respiratory surfaces.
gills or lungs
Define inspiration.
inhalation/breathing in
Define expiration.
exhalation/breathing out
Define tidal volume.
inhaling about 500ml of air and exhaling the same amount
Define insiratory reserve volume.
extra amount that can be inspired during forceful breathing
Define expiratory reserve volume.
extra amount that can be expired during forceful breathing
Define vital capacity
largest amount that can moved in and out during ventilation
Define residual volume.
air that remains in the respiratory tract after forceful expiration
Define VO2 max.
maximum rate that oxygen can be supplied to the muscles tissues
Define population.
group of individuals of the same species living in a given area
Define exponential population growth.
population growth under ideal conditions, can be shown with the J curve
Define logistic population growth.
S shaped, incorporated positive or negative mechanisms
Define carrying capacity.
may be due to some environmental (extrinsic factors) or intrinsic processes operating in the population
Define vegetative propagation.
asexual additions to the population
Name the two general types of growth curves.
J and S shaped curves
Humans appear to follow which of population growth?
exponential - J shaped
Bacterai growing in a Petri dish should exhibit which type of population growth?
logistic - S shaped
In the graph of sand beetles, how does the number of eggs laid effect the survivorship of those eggs?
as the numberof eggs increase, the survivor rate decreases
How does the crowding in plants affect the same number of seeds produced per plant?
as the crowding increases, reproduction decreases
Name two factors that can effect populations with high densities.
limited resources and competition
Would expect species with a short life cycle, such as mice, to have a higher or lower reproductive output than species with longer life cycles, such as an elephants?
higher
Which type of survivorship curve do humans fit into?
exponential - J shaped
Carrying capacity helps determine the shape of which type of population growth curve?
logistic - S shaped
The study of organisms in their environment is called?
ecology
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy can be changed but cannot be __________.
created or destroyed
Which Law of Thermodynamics states that every time energy is changed some is lost as heat?
second law
The source of all energy is the _____.
sun
Organisms that can use sunlight directly are called?
producers
Producers convert sunlight to chemical energy via __________.
photosnythesis
Organisms that eat other organisms are called?
consumers
The most numerous organisms in an ecosystem are the _________.
decomposers
What are the 6 most important atoms for life?
Sulfur, Phosphorus, Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
While energy is a one-way flow through the ecosystem, ________ are cycled through?
abiotic components
What is the source of acid rain?
sulfur and nitrogen from industrial power plants
What chemical is released from smoke stacks?
sulfuroxides
When SO4 mixes with water what forms?
sulfuric acid
Define acid.
subtances that donates a proton
How can acids be diluted?
with water ot base
The more protons, the more _______ the acid.
reactive
What scale is used to measure the acidity of a susbstance?
pH
A strong acid has a pH of ________.
less than 2
What is neutral on the pH scale?
7
What is the pH of normal rain?
5.6
What is the pH of rain falling in the northeast?
2
Burning fossil fuels realeases what 2 compounds?
sulfuric oxide and nitrogen oxide
What is the effect of tall chimneys on pollutants?
allows them to travel further from source
What are the first species to dissapper when lakes become acidified?
minos and microscopic organisms
What is the effect of water at a pH of 5.0 on crayfish and fish eggs?
softens the body and eggs do not hatch
Why are lakes hit with a pulse of acid in the spring?
snow melting which is acidic
What ion is freed apon acid rain interacting with soil?
aluminum
Aluminum attacks the _____ of fish causing ________.
gills, suffocation
How does acid rain effect leaves?
bleaches nutrients of tree faster than it can be supplied
Name 3 nutrients leached from the soil by acid rain?
calcium, magnesium, and potassium
Acid rain mobilizes aluminum in the soil which blocks what from roots?
vital minerals/ removes the remaining soil nutrients
What is the only solution to acid rain?
counter attack at the source
Define cations.
postive ions
Define acid rain.
condition particularly harmful to plants and aquatic life
Define micelles.
microscopic particles made up of organic matter and clay
Define cation exchange.
weakly head cations are knocked off of micelles and replaced by more strongly held ones
High cation exchange capacity.
can neutralize rainwater acidity by taking up H+ and releasing Ca+2 and Mg+2
How did breathing into the test tube of tap water cause the solution to become acidic?
carbon dioxide combines with moisture to form dilute acid
Aquatic organisms such as the fish are hurt by acidic rain, but it's not the acid itself that's harmful but high concentration of metallic cations - such as aluminum - in lakes and streams that kill the fish. Where did the metals come from? Why does the concentration of the metals increase in areas affected by acidic rain?
comes from the soil, aluminum is more soluble and increases concentration to toxic levels
What gas does the burning match release?
sufuric oxide
How does this stimulate pollution that occurs in the environment?
the burning match mimics burning fossil fuels
Based on your observations, what was the effect of acid rain on chalk?
dissolved it
Based on the observations what effects would acid rain have on buildings and statues made from limestone?
it will dissolve them
From your observations what effect does acid rain have upon zinc?
will decay and erode eventually
This indicates rain effects metal how?
will weaken the metal
List (from worst to best) the ablilities of the three bedrock samples to neutralize acid rain.
granite
basalt
marble
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