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26 terms

Sociology - chapter 5

Social Interaction in Everyday Life
STUDY
PLAY
Social structure
the ordered relationships and patterned expectations that guide social interaction
status
a socially defined position in a social structure
status set
all of the statuses a person has at a given time
status inconsistency
two or more statuses that a society deems contradictory
ascribed statuses
statuses assigned to individuals without reference to their abilities or efforts
achieved statuses
statuses secured through effort and ability
master status
a status that dominates all other statuses
role
a set of expectations, rights, and duties that are attached to a particular status
role distance
when people play a role but remain detached from it to avoid any negative aspects of the role
role embracement
when a person's sense of identity is partially influenced by a role
role merger
when a role becomes central to a person's identity and the person literally becomes the role he or she is playing
role set
multiple roles that are attached to almost every status
role strain
contradictory expectations and demands attached to a single role
role conflict
when a person cannot fulfill the roles of one status without violating those of another
social network
the total web of an individuals relationships and group memberships
social institutions
relatively enduring clusters of values, norms, social statuses, roles, and groups that address fundamental social needs
social interaction
mutual influence of two or more people on each other's behavior
social perception
the process by which we form impressions of others and of ourselves
stereotypes
static and oversimplified ideas about a group or a social category
social acts
behaviors influenced or shaped by the presence of others
personal space
an area around our body that we reserve for ourselves, intimate acquaintances, and close friends
nonverbal communication
the body movements, gestures, and facial expressions that we use to communicate with others
definition of the situation
the idea that when people define situations as real they become real in their consequences
dramaturgy
analyzes social interaction as though participants were actors in an ongoing drama
impression management
ways that people use revelation and concealment to make a favorable impression on others
ethnomethodology
a way of analyzing the "taken-for-granted" aspects that give meaning to social interaction