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kin 365 test 3
Terms in this set (88)
moving along a line
how to measure/ how much space you displaced along a linear path
when movement of the object is restricted to moving around a fixed axes ; rotating around a fixed axes
turning force responsible for rotation
distance from inside of circle to outisde of foot
radius of rotation
causes or trends to cause a change in motion or shape of an object
how do we measure force?
pounds or newtons
force acting over a given area?
amount of matter (atoms)
the effect of gravity on mass
property of the body or object that resists change in motion
location where by all of the mass of a body or object is evenly distributed around
center of gravity
W=F x D
what force can cause a change in motion?
earth pushing back exactly as hard and exactly in the opposite direction
ground reaction force
what are the four properties of force?
1. magnitude: length of the force
3. point of application
4. line of action: can go either direction
the environment delivers a certain kind of force in response to the force body segments that are exerted on the environment
for every force applied by one body on a second, the second body applies an equal in magnitude and oppositely directed on the first
newtons 3rd law of motion
the space created between two contacting surfaces that tend to rub or slide past each other
friction force formula?
normal force X coefficient of friction
responsible for continually forcing the rotating object to follow the circular path
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction reaction force
centripetal force needed?
mass x speed^2/ radius of circle
tighter the turn
horizontal component of the ground reaction force=?
what happens when you decrease speed?
how readily will an object reform after being deformed
coefficient of elasticity formula?
square root (height of rebound/ height of drop)
force that caused the motion (bicep)
force that would cause the opposite motion (weight)
P= F x D/ T
P= F x (D/T)
P=F x V
P= force x speed of force application
the ability to do work
forms of energy
nuclear: nuclear power plant
chemical: breaking down food to make ATP
3 forms of mechanical energy? what is kinetic energy?
kinetic energy: energy of motion
something that could happen
PE= w x h
gravitation potential energy
ability of a body or object to do work while it recoils (or reforms) after being stretched or compressed
gravitation potential energy--> kinetic energy
elastic potential energy
magnitude and direction (ex: force)
magnitude only (ex: mass, volume and area)
what type of vector is weight?
anything with magnitude and direction (velocity)
length of a vector=?
a result vector; has more than one external force applied to a system; from 2:1; when you have 2 forces and want to go a result vector
net effect is determined by?
2 forces acting along the same line of action
2 collinear forces
taking a vector and resolving it into 2 components; going from 1 vector to two
max. 90 degree angle pull
large, 0 degree
turning effect on body produced by force; when an external force acts on a system which is restricted to moving around the axis, the result is rotary motion
OFF axis; force must not pass through the axis
shortest distance from the axis of rotation to the line of action of the force; the only perpendicular (90 degree) distance from axis of roation to line of action of force
torque=force x force arm
what are the 4 properties of torque?
1. magnitude:T= f x force arm
2. direction:clockwise and counterclockwise
3. point of application: of the force
4. line of action: of the force
when does force arm change?
through the full range of motion
biomechanics of the musculosketal system:
mechanical aspect of the bone muscle arrangement results in producing segmental movements
4 functions of a machine?
1. balance two or more forces
2. to provide an advantage in force
3. to provide an advantage in range of linear motion and speed of movement
4. to change the effective direction of applied motive force
3 machine like structures used by the body?
1. the lever
2. the wheel- axle
3. the pulley
a lever system consists of an axis of rotation around which is a rigid lever moves, a lever system
lever- like arrangements
forces and torques applied to bones?
force line is shortest/perpendicular
torque that causes the motion (weight)
whatever is producing the torque to do the opposite (bicep)
the sum of the torques in each direction must be determined
to determine whether a segment will move
force arm through full range of motion?
longest (90 degree) --> shortest
always 90 degrees, vector resolution 1:2, stabilizing is longer= greater magnitude, only rotary component causes movement
90 degree angle of pull=
rotary component, length of stabilizing=0.00
3 elbow flexors?
brachialis: rotary not as strong
bicep brachii: rotary big
brachioradialis: rotary is small
what is the best biomechanical advantage?
the muscle of the body are at a mechanical disadvantage in force... muscle line of action runs very close to the axes of rotation for the joint movements..thus, they have small force arms
resistive force (bicep)/motive force (weight)
we do have mechanical advantage in range of motion and speed of movement
musculosketal lever system
the axis is located betwen the motive force and resistance force
-rare in the human body
1st class lever
when the rotary component of the resistive force is located between the rotary component and axis
2nd class lever
when the rotary component of the motive force is located between the axis and rotary component of the resistive force
3rd class lever
what lever system has the most musculoskeletal lever arrangement when the muscle is in motive force?
wheel and axle like arrangements
MA=radius of wheel/radius of axle
MA=force on the axle/ force on the wheel
MA in force when the motive force is applied to what?
the wheel/ axle depending on what formula is shown
pulleys can change the effective direction of the applied motive force
pulley like arragnements
true or false: can we use pulleys to gain mechanical advantage?
FALSE; we can not use them to gain mechanical advantage
the human body is built for ?
speed and ROM
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Electrodynamics
David J. Griffiths
Fundamentals of Physics
Halliday, Resnick, Walker
Engineering Electromagnetics (Irwin Electronics & Computer Enginering)
John Buck, William Hayt
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