What are the reasons the English colonized in America?
England wanted to establish an American colony to increase their wealth and power.
How did the English want to increase their wealth? (three parts)
1. Expected to find silver and gold in America. 2. Furnish raw materials that could not be grown or found in England. 3. Open new markets for trade.
What did Captain John Smith tell the settlers in his work program?
"He who does not work, does not eat."
Who initiated trade relationships with native people?
Captain John Smith.
What native people did Captain John Smith trade with?
The Powhatan Tribe
How did the settlers find hardship in Jamestown?
1. The site they chose to live on was marshy and lacked safe drinking water. 2. Settlers lacked some of the skills necessary to provide for themselves. 3. Many settlers died of starvation and disease.
What were the results of Pocohantas' friendship with the English settlers and why did she help them?
1. She helped them survive. 2. She thought the English and Powhatans could live in peace.
What are two ways that the Powhatan people contribute to the survival of the Jamestown settlers?
1. Chief Powhatan provided leadership to his people and taught the settlers survival skills. 2. Powhatans introduced new crops to the English, including corn and tobacco.
What did the English settlers trade with the Powhatan and what did the settlers receive in return?
1. Settlers traded to Powhatan: tools, pots, copper jewelry. 2. Powhatan people traded to settlers: food, fur and leather.
Over time, what three negative things happened to ruin the Powhatan and English relationship?
1. The Powhatan people realized the English settlement would continue to grow. 2. They saw the colonists as invaders that would take over their land. 3. They became distrustful and hostile.
What was the name of the first permanent English settlement and what year was it founded?
Jamestown, founded in 1607
Where is Jamestown located?
Jamestown is located on a narrow peninsula bordered on three sides by the James River.
What is a charter?
A charter is a written rule or law granted by a ruler.
What did King James I grant to the Virginia Company of London through the First Charter? (two parts)
1. Establish companies to begin colonies in North America. 2. Extend English rights to the settlers.
What are the crops that the Powhatans introduced to help the colonists survive?
Tobacco and corn
Why did the settlers trade with the Indians?
In 1619, who captured African men and women from what is present-day Angola?
Did Africans come to America willingly?
No, they were brought to America against their will.
What was the status of these early African men and women?
They were indentured servants or slaves.
What were the three reasons the settlers chose Jamestown?
1. They could easily be defended from the Spanish if they attacked by the sea. 2. The water was deep enough for ships to dock. 3. They believed they had a good supply of fresh water.
Why was Jamestown not a good supply of fresh water?
Jamestown is close enough to the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean that the water was brackish.
What does brackish mean?
Brackish water is water that has more salt than fresh water, but not as much as seawater; it will make you sick if you drink it.
What was the name of the meeting in 1619 held by the governor of Virginia?
Virginia General Assembly
Who could be members of the Virginia General Assembly?
Free adult men that owned land.
How did African indentured slaves help Jamestown? (two parts)
1. They made it possible to expand the tobacco economy. 2. Providing an inexpensive work force for growing, harvesting, and transporting tobacco.
When were indentured servants given their freedom?
They were only given their freedom after working for a period of five to seven years.
Why was it important that women arrived to Jamestown? (two parts)
1. This made it possible for the settlers to establish family. 2. Make Jamestown a more permanent settlement.
In what year did a large number of women arrive to Jamestown, allowing the settlers to establish families?
By the 1640s, the burgesses became a separate entity called the Virginia House of Burgesses; it was the first elected legislative body in America to give settlers what?
It gave the settlers the opportunity to control their own government.
In 1619, the Virginia Assembly was called by the Royal Governor; the Assembly included: (three parts)
1. The Governor (appointed) 2. The Governor's Council (appointed) 3. Burgesses (elected)
In 1640 two legislative bodies of the General Assembly met separately. What are the names of the two?
1. House of Burgesses 2. Governor's Council
What is malaria?
A mosquito-borne infectious disease.
What are three changes that ensured the settlers' survival? (three parts)
1. Arrival of two supply ships brought the sick and hungry settlers food and other things they needed. 2. The forced work program and strong leadership of Captain John Smith. 3. The emphasis on self-sustaining agriculture
How could indentured servants pay off their debt?
They worked for 5-7 years.
When did the Virginia Colony become independent of its slave laborers?
Not for hundreds of years.
What happened in Jamestown in 1607?
Jamestown settlement was founded.
Did the settlers have the skills needed to survive in the New World?
No, they lacked skills necessary to provide for themselves.
What is an economic venture?
Taking risks to make money.
How did England think that the colony would make money? (three parts)
1. Finding silver and gold 2. Finding raw materials not available in England 3. Opening new markets for trade
Tobacco was a "cash crop" that made money for the colonists; what does cash crop mean?
A cash crop is a crop grown to sell for money rather than to be used by the farmers.
What did the economy of Virginia depend on as a primary source of wealth?
African slave labor in the tobacco fields made tobacco the colony's first self-sustaining agricultural product; what does "self-sustaining" mean?
Self-sustaining means to be able to provide for your own means without help.