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19 terms

Holt Biology Ch 6

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gamete
a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
gene
a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific hereditary trait
chromatid
one of the two strands of a chromosome that becomes visible furing meiosis or mitosis
chromosome
in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and proteins in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
centomere
the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis
diploid
a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes
haploid
describes a cell, nucleus or organism that has only one set of unpaired chromosomes
zygote
the cell that results from the fusion of gametes, a fertilized egg
sex chromosome
one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
karyotype
an array of the chromosomes found in an individual's cells at metaphase of mitosis and arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size
cell cycle
the life cycle of cells in eukaryotes, it consists of a a cell-growth period in which DNA is synthesized and cell-division period in which mitosis takes place
interphase
a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA and synthesizes proteins
mitosis
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
autosome
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
cytokinesis
the division of the cytoplama of a cell, cytokinesis follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis
cancer
a tumor in which the cells begin dividing at an uncontrolled rate and become invasive
spindle
a network of microtubules that forms during mitosis and moves chromatids to the poles