Terms in this set (57)
introduction to constitution starts with We the People
lawmaking body of US that includes senate and house of representatives
House of Representatives
one of houses of congress with number of members based on state population
one of houses of congress with number of members based on 2 senators for each state elected each 6 years
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
the final paragraph of Article I, section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers
powers not specifically expressed, but may be considerered through the use of the Necessary and Proper (elastic) Clause
a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress
determines the order of becoming president if something were to happen to the President: Vice-President, Speaker of the House, President Pro-Tempore, Secretary of State, and other heads of the cabinet departments
State of Union Address
Annual speech delivered by the president in late January or early February in fulfillment of the constitutional obligation of reporting to Congress the state of the union
Consists of nine justices, each appointed by the President and confirmed by Congress. Appointment is for life. Supreme Court exercises the power to determine constitutionality of statutes
To officially approve the Constitution or an Amendment to it
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
the Fifth Amendment right providing that a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime
legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
Due Process of Law
principle in the 5th Amendment stating that the government must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it takes against individuals
powers held by the states through the 10th Amendment. Any power not granted to the US government is "reserved" for the states
The legal right to vote, extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth Amendment, to women by the Nineteenth Amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the Twenty-sixth Amendment.
articles of confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Bill of rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
how a bill becomes law
proposed bill passes through the House of Representatives and the Senate and then sent to the President to be signed or vetoed
ways of becoming a model citizen
participate in your community, stay informed, vote in elections
rights and responsibilities of citizens
Support and defend the Constitution, Respect and obey federal, state, and local laws, Respect the rights, beliefs, and opinions of others, Serve on a jury when called upon.
equal protection under the law
when all people in a country have the same rights and are treated the same by the laws
citizens of us
anyone who was born here and immigrants who pass a special test to become citizens
a group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime
written) (oral) you cannot make false statements in public that might damage a persons reputiation unless you can prove it
Improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial
wrote the Declaration of Independence; became the 3rd President of the United states and purchased the Louisiana Territory, doubling the size of the United States.
This English philosopher argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights
the idea that all people have the same rights from birth. Life, Liberty and Property-from John Locke in social contract originally and adapted by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration and changed to Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
purpose/function of government
The purpose of government is to protect the individual rights of its citizens. Since rights can be assaulted both within a country or outside of it, the government must deal with either threat. This requires an army for defense of the country, and a police system to protect the individual citizens from other individuals within the country
ex Post Facto
"after the fact." An ex post facto law is one which makes a particular act illegal, and punishes people who committed that crime before the law was passed, i.e., when the act was legal. "Ex post facto" means "from a thing done afterward" in Latin.
A pamphlet that appeared in January 1776 that attacked the Constitution of England and the principles of hereditary rule and monarchical government.
US type of government
Constitution-based federal republic;
In 1956 the President approved a Joint Resolution declaring IN GOD WE TRUST the national motto of the United State
Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
abolition of slavery
14th gave the former slaves citizenship.civil war amendments (happened before south 'confederates' were apart of US again
amendments to the U.S. Constitution which corrected slavery; 13th abolished slavery; 14th gave the former slaves citizenship; 15th gave the former slaves voting rights
Income tax amendment.
Prohibition to alcohol
Extended the right to vote to everyone.
repealed 18th amendment
Limits terms a president can serve to two
18 year olds are allowed to vote.
Article 1: Mostly about how the Congress shall work, e.g. that it is divided into the Senate and the House of Reps.
principles of constitution
Has seven basic principals: Popular Sovereignty, Limited Government, Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances, Federalism, Republicanism, and Individual Rights.
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
Concerns the President's role.
How the judicial power is divided.
Judicial regulations and requirements regarding the states.
How the Constitution can be amended, and every state has the right to have their votes in the Senate
Every state is bound to comply with treaties and federal laws.
Upon ratification, the Constitution is above all state laws
how amendments are made
Congress (2/3 both houses) shall propose amendments to the Constitution or 2/3 state legislatures' call for a convention for proposing amendments. 3/4 approval of state legislatures and 3/4 approval at a state convention
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