Chemistry 123 Exam #3
Terms in this set (97)
The equilibrium reached between the conjugate acid-base pairs of water produces
both H3O+ and OH−.
example; water, which means that it can act as either as an acid or as a base
Water dissociation constant expression, Kw
Kw= [H3O+] [OH-]=1.0 x 10 -14
[H3O+] and [OH−] are equal,
the solution is neutral.
[H3O+] is greater than the [OH−],
the solution is acidic.
[OH−] is greater than the [H3O+],
the solution is basic.
pH<7.0 [H3O+]> 1.0 x 10 -7 M
pH=7.0 [H3O+]=1.0 x 10 -7 M
pH>7.0 [H3O+]<1.0 x 10 -7 M
Calculating the pH of solutions
Acids and metals
acids react with certain metals to produce- hydrogen gas (H2) and a salt; in these single replacement reactions, the metal ion replaces the hydrogen in the acids
Mg + 2HCl ----> H2 + MgCl2
Acids react with carbonate or bicarbonates
when an acids is added to a carbonate or bicarbonate, the products- are carbon dioxide gas, water, and a salt
2HCl + Na2CO3 ----> Co2 + H2O + 2NaCl
Acids and hydroxides; neutralization
is a reaction between a strong or weak acid with a strong base to produce a water and a salt
HCl + NaOH ----> H2O + NaCl
is the study of carbon compounds
Always contains carbon and hydrogen atoms.
May also contain other nonmetals such as oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, phosphorus, or a halogen.
we organize organic compounds by their ____, which are groups of atoms bonded in a specific way
Organic compounds typically
Have covalent bonds.
have low melting and boiling points.
are flammable and undergo combustion.
are not soluble in water
are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen.
Carbon will also have____in organic molecules
When carbon has 4 single bonds, it has a ____geometry with a bond angle of _____degrees
The expanded structural formula
shows all of the atoms and the bonds connected to each atom.
A condensed structural formula
shows the carbon atoms each grouped with the attached number of hydrogen atoms.
A hydrocarbon is referred to as a _______ when all the bonds in the molecule are single bonds.
are compounds that have the same formula but different structure
are formed by a continuous chain of carbon atoms.
are named using the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) system.
have names that end in ane.
use Greek prefixes to name carbon chains with five or more carbon atoms.
carbons are connected only by SINGLE BONDS
Alkanes there are only single bonds between C-H and C-C The names of the alkanes follow a systematics method of nomenclature, especially once we get to 5 carbons and above
More than ___ of the compounds in the world are____
hydrocarbons can also form cyclic or ring structures which are cyclic alkanes.
have two fewer hydrogen atoms than the open chain form.
are named by using the prefix cyclo before the name of the alkane chain with the same number of carbon atoms.
each intersection is a carbon
Groups attached to a parent hydrocarbon are known as_____
The following substituents groups that you must know before you can name an organic compound, they are called____
groups of carbon atoms attached to carbon chains.
named in the IUPAC system with an yl ending.
halogen atoms (group 7A) attached to the carbon chain.
drop ine and add -o
named in the IUPAC system as fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo.
Guide to naming alkanes with substituents
step 1; write the alkane name for the longest chain of carbon atoms
step 2; number the carbon atoms starting from the end nearer a substituent
step 3; give the location and name for each substituent (alphabetical order) as a prefix to the name of the main chain
Name cycloalkanes with substituents
the name of the substituent is placed in front of the cycloalkane name.
no number is needed for a single alkyl group or halogen atom
Alkene and alkynes are families of hyfrocarbons that contain ____ respectively. They are called ____ because they do not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
double and triple bonds
contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds
contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds
Namin alkenes and alkynes
using the alkane name with the same number of carbon atoms, the ane ending is replaced with ene from alkenes and yne for an alkyne
In an alkene, the double bond
is rigid and does not rotate.
holds attached groups in fixed positions.
makes cis-trans isomers (geometric isomers) possible when two different groups are attached to the carbon atoms on each side of the double bond.
requires a prefix of cis or trans to reflect the arrangement of groups across the double bond.
Naming cis-trans isomers
The prefix of cis or trans is placed in front of the alkene name when the compound is a cis or trans isomer.
hydrogen atoms add to the carbon atoms of a double bond of an alkenes; the double bonds are converted to single bonds in alkanes
a catalyst such as Pt, Ni, or Pd is used to speed up the reaction.
In hydration reactions, an alkene reacts with water, H — OH, to form an alcohol
A hydrogen atom (H —) from water forms a bond with the carbon atom in the double bond with more hydrogen atoms.
The — OH from water forms a bond with the second carbon atom in the double bond with fewer hydrogen atoms.
These reactions are catalyzed by a strong acid such as H2SO4.
Many polymerization reactions require
high temperature, a catalyst, and high pressure (over 1000atm)
an aromatic compound.
a ring of six C atoms, each bonded to one H atom.
a flat ring structure drawn with three alternating double bonds.
represented by two structures, because the electrons are shared equally among all the C atoms.
represented by a line-angle structural formula using a circle in the center instead of the alternating double bonds.
Naming aromatic compounds
1. a benzene ring with a methyl group attached (CH3)=Toluene
2. a benzene ring with NH2 is attached= Aniline
3. a benzene ring with a hydroxy group attached (OH)= Phenol
When there are two or more substituents, the benzene ring is numbered to give the _____ numbers to the substituents.
If three or more substituents are attached to the benzene ring, they are numbered in the direction to give the lowest set of numbers and then named ____
when a benzene ring is a substituent- C6H5 it is named as a____
ortho (o) indicates
a 1,2 arrangment
meta (m) indicates
a 1,3 arrangment
para (p) indicates
a 1,4 arrangment
contain a hydroxyl
group (— OH).
contain a hydroxyl
group (— OH) bonded to a
contain an — SH group.
count from the end to give OH group the lowest possible #
replacing the e of the corresponding alkane name with ol
an alcohol with two -OH groups is named- diol
an alcohol with three -OH groups is named -triol
a cyclic alcohol is named- cycloalkanol
consists of an oxygen atom that is attached by single bonds to two carbon groups that are alkyl or aromatic groups
and are simply named alkyl groups followed by ether
Classification of alcohols
alcohols are classified by the # of alkyl groups attached to the carbon atom bonded to the hydroxyl group (-OH)
1. primary (1') alcohol- OH on a carbon directly attached to one other carbon
2. secondary (2') alcohol- OH group on a carbon directly attached to 2 other C's
3. tertiary (3') alcohol- OH group on a carbon directly attached to 3 other C's
Physical property of alcohols have _________ than comparable molecular weight alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and alkyl halids because they can_____
higher boiling points
whenever you have "H" attached to ________ that molecule can hydrogen bond which can increase its boiling point and melting point
hydrogen bonding also helps to make alcohols of 5c's or less____
can form hydrogen bonds with water.
form fewer hydrogen bonds than alcohols
are only slightly soluble in water when they have fewer than four carbon atoms.
are not soluble in water if they have five or more carbon atoms.
Alcohols, similar to hydrocarbons, undergo combustion in the presence of____
Phenols are more acidic than _____
Alcohol undergo 2 main reactions
1. Dehydration reaction
alcohols lose a water molecule when they are heated at a high temperature with an acid catalyst the loss of — H and — OH from adjacent carbon atoms from the same alcohol, producing an alkene and a water molecule
[an elimination reaction in which water is lost and a C=C double bond is formed]
2. Oxidation reaction
Primary alcohols can be oxidized to either an
2. Carboxylic acid
Secondary alcohols can be oxidized to
Teirtay alcohols do not undergo oxidation reactions
In organic chemistry oxidation is
a loss of hydrogen atoms or the addition of oxygen; when a compound is oxidized there is an increase in the # of carbon-oxygen bonds
Oxidation has occurred when
the reaction is written with the symbol [O] over the arrow
Aldehydes have ____
carbon-oxygen bond and also bonded to a hydrogen
Ketones consist of 2 carbon groups
no attachment to hydrogen
reactions reduce the number of bonds between carbon and oxygen atoms.
Aldehydes can oxidizes further by the addition of oxygen to form carboxylic acids, which have ______ carbon-oxygen bonds
When thiols undergo oxidation
an H atom is lost from each of two — SH groups.
the product is a disulfide.
1. find the longest continuous chain of carbon that contains the C=O
2. # the chain to give the bond above carbon position #1
3. This longest chain is the parent, drop the -e ending of the corresponding parent alkane and add -al
4. Indicate the name/ position of other groups present
1. find the longest continuous chain of carbon that contains the C=O group
2. count from the end to give the C=O the lowest possible #
3. this longest chain is the parent, drop the -e ending of the corresponding parent alkane and add -one
4. indicate the position of the C=O carbon before parent name
5. indicate the name/ position of other groups present using alphabetical order
A carbonyl group in
1. an aldehyde is bonded to at least one H atom.
2. a ketone is bonded to two carbon groups.
Aldehydes and ketones contain
a carbonyl group that consists of
a carbon-oxygen _____________
with two groups of atoms
attached to the carbon at angles
The polar carbonyl group in aldehydes and ketones provides _________
aldehydes and ketones have _____ than alkanes
higher boiling points
alcohols have higher boiling points than______
aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes and ketones can not form_____ with each other as alcohols do
Aldehydes and ketones
with one to four carbons are soluble in water.
with five or more carbons are not very soluble in water.
aldehydes and ketones contain a polar carbonyl group (carbon-oxygen double bond) which has a partially ____ oxygen atom and a partially_____ carbon atom
Aldehydes oxidize readily to form _________
Ketones do not undergo______
Reduction of aldehydes and ketones
Aldehydes are reduced to primary alcohols, and ketones are reduced to secondary alcohols.
Aldehyde and ketones are reduced by____
In the reduction of organic compounds, there is a_______ in the number of carbon-oxygen bonds
a_____ such as nickel, platinum, or palladium is needed for the addition of hydrogen
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