Consumer Behavior Test 3
Terms in this set (127)
Any change in the content or organization of long-term memory
Short Term Memory(STM)
Working memory, portion of total memory that is currently activated or in use
Long Term Memory (LTM)
Portion of the total memory devoted to permanent information storage
The continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to LTM
High Involvement Learning
Situations in which the consumer is motivated to learn the material
Low Involvement Learning
Situations in which the consumer has little or no motivation to learn the material
A set of procedures that marketers can use to increase the chances that an association between two stimuli is formed or learned
The use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information
Basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept
Memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated
What are the 5 learning theories?
3) Iconic rote
4) Vicarious/ Modeling
5) Reasoning/ Analogy
Classical Conditioning (low involvement)
Process of using an established relationship between a stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response to a different stimulus
Example of Classical Learning
Pavlov's Dog Experiment
Operant Learning (high involvement)
Molding or shaping behavior by using a reinforcement.
Involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior
Acute memory for the circumstances surrounding a surprising and novel event
A pattern of associations around a particular concept
Schematic memory, a complex web of associations
Memory of how an action sequence should occur
What is an example of the process of Shaping?
1) Consume a free sample of Rice Popcorn that was sent to your home
2) Purchase a second package using the discount coupon that accompanied the free sample
3) Repurchase the product at full price
The process of encouraging partial responses leading to final desired response
What is the purpose of shaping?
To create habit
Encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations
Iconic Rote (Low Involvement)
The association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditions
Example of Iconic Rote
You may see an ad that states Ketoprofin is a headache remedy and associate the new concept of Ketoprofin with the existing concept of headache remedy
Vicarious/Modeling (Low or High Involvement)
Observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting their own accordingly
Example of Vicarious/Modeling
Celebrity showcasing product like weight loss commercials
Analytical Reasoning (High Involvement)
Individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts
Example of Analytical Reasoning
Baking Soda: We know what it does but we can stand to be taught they extra abilities it has like removing smells from a fridge or carpet
An inference process that allows consumers to use an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object
What consumers have learned about the brand
Schematic memory of a brand
Decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment
Deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product; can involve brand performance, feelings it evokes, situational usage, or even who uses it
What were the following strategies for Beef Jerky
1) Changed distribution from convenience stores to grocery stores
2) Changed package design - started to use more upscale colors
3) Changed shelf placement - always by the beer and cigs now in the snack aisle
4) Introduced different flavors
The reason for behavior
A construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response
What are the 5 tiers to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
Self-actualization, ego needs, social needs, safety and security needs, and physiological needs
The desire for self-fulfillment, to reach one's potential
Desire for status, self-respect, and prestige
Needs for acceptance, love, and friendship
Safety and Security Needs
Physical security and protection from bodily harm
The basic requirements for existence, such as food, sex, water, and shelter
What are the Mid-Range Theories of Motivation
The theories that explain a narrow facet of human motivation (Opponent process, optimum stimulation level, psychological reactance, and motivation to attribute causality
Opponent Process Theory
These are your addictions; when a person receives a stimulus that elicits a negative or positive reaction and two things happen: 1) immediate positive or negative emotion is felt and 2) a second emotional reaction occurs that is opposite from the first emotion felt.
Examples of Opponent Process Theory
Smoking, compulsive over-spending, adrenaline junkies, etc.
Optimum Stimulation Level Theory
Person's preferred amount of physiological activation or arousal; explains why we seek variety in things we buy
Example of Optimum Stimulation Theory
In a survey: On a scale of 1-10 of excitement; when your excitement or arousal has dialed down, you have to get it back up to your normal level and vice versa for someone that likes lower levels.
Variety in Pringles flavors
Negative emotional state when a person's behavioral freedom has been threatened; explains why we get upset when our favorite brand disappears
Example of Psychological Reactance
Crayola took away colors and people were upset so thry brought it back.
Motivation to Attribute Causality
Explains why we place blame when something goes wrong
Example of Motivation to Attribute Causality
Computer problems cause havoc for United Airlines passengers, American Airlines blames computer issues for cancellations, Malaysia Airline flight 370 communications deliberately shut down!
An individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situations
Brands/stores acquire personalities and consumers prefer brand and stores with personalities that they like.
Marketers need to determine the personalities target consumers find desirable for their product/store and then work to build that personality
What are the two assumptions associated with the personality theory?
1) All individuals have internal characteristics or traits
2) Consistent and measurable differences between individuals
What are the 5 core traits of personality?
Extroversion, instability, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness
Manifestation of Extroversion
Prefer to be in large groups rather than alone, talkative when with others, and bold
Manifestation of Instability
Moody, temperamental, touchy
Manifestation of Agreeableness
Sympathetic, kind to others, and polite with others
Manifestation of Openness to Experience
Imaginative, appreciative of art, and find novel solutions
Manifestation of Conscientiousness
Careful, precise, and efficient
Women tend to be higher on this scale
Reflects an individual difference in consumer's propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products
A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand
Dimensions of Brand Personality
Sincerity (down-to-earth, honest, cheerful), excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative), competence (reliable, intelligent, successful), sophistication (upper class, charming), and ruggedness (outdoorsy, tough).
Strong, relative uncontrollable feelings that affect our behavior
They are triggered by the environment, physiological changes, and accompanied by thoughts and behaviors
What are the three time zones emotions can be placed in?
Future, past, and present oriented emotions
How does emotion benefit products?
By emotion arousal and emotion reductions
How does emotions effect advertising?
By enhancing attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities
Processed more thoroughly
May be remembered better
What is the technology that unmasks emotions?
What kind of questions does Affectica ask?
What types of companies or products would benefit from unmasking consumer's emotions?
Which demographic and social status group would appreciate this technology the most? Why?
Would this technology be best in a collective or individualistic culture?
If a company could indeed read emotions, what learning theory could be applied to teach these emotional consumers? Conditioned Learning
A consumer's beliefs about specific attributes or overall object.
Enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with respect for some aspect of our environment
The way we think, feel, and act toward some aspect of our environment
What are the three components (parts) to attitude?
Affective, cognitive, and behavioral
Emotions or feelings about specific attributes or overall objects
Behavioral intentions with respect to specific attributes or overall objects
What are the 4 Hierarchies of Effects?
Belief-affect-behavior (High involvement), belief-behavior-affect (Low involvement), affect-behavior-belief (Experiential), and behavior-belief-affect (behavioral influence)
Marketing Implications for Persuasion of High Involvement Products
Involves the central route to persuasion
Consumers use cognitive learning
Marketing Implications for Persuasion of LowInvolvement Products
Involves peripheral route (something around the edges) to persuasion
Consumers learn by iconic rote (through repetition of simple messages)
Marketing Implications for Persuasion of Experiential Products
Involves classical conditioning and mere exposure (not cognitively based because of seeing over and over again)
Marketing Implications for Persuasion of Behvioral Influence Products
Involves operant conditioning. Consumers emit a behavior first (purchase), followed by belief formation (I believe I got a good deal), and lastly a feeling (I am happy with my purchase)
The more you see it, the more you like it
Example of Peripheral Things
Things in ads are like on the outskirts of town; not necessarily adding much to product (music)
Consists of trustworthiness and expertise
A person, generally a typical member of the target market, recounts his or her successful use of the product, service, or idea
What are the 6 reasons celebrity sources are effective?
Attention, attitude toward the ad, trustworthiness, expertise, aspirational aspects, and meaning transfer
A company providing financial support for an event
What are the three types of communication characteristics?
Source, appeal, and message structure
Source Characteristics Represents the _______.
Represents "who" delivers the message
Appeal Characteristics Represents the _______.
Represents "how" the message is communicated
Message Structure Characteristics Represents the _______.
Represents "how" message is presented
Celebrity sources are effective because they............
Get attention, are credible, increase brand and ad attitude, can transfer their meaning to the consumer, and have an aspirational effect
What are the risks of celebrity sources?
Bad behavior, injury, and overuse
Use the threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if attitudes or behaviors are not altered
Ads built around humor appear to increase attention to and liking of the ad, particularly for those individuals high in need for humor
Directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands
Humor is effective when:
1) Humor relates to the brand in a meaningful way (use focus groups)
2) It's viewed as appropriate for the target audience
Designed primarily to elicit a positive affective response rather than to provide information or arguments
Attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user
Involve informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market
One point of view is expressed - only give positive side
Presenting both good and bad points, is counterintuitive, and most marketers are reluctant to try such an approach
Presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms (positive framing) or in negative or loss terms (negative framing)
Where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame
The message stresses either the positive consequences of performing an act or the negative consequences of not performing the act
A set of factors outside of and removed from the individual consumer as well as removed from the characteristics or attributes of the stimulus object that the consumer is taking action in.
Consequences of crowding
1) People spend less time there
2) People make faster decisions
3) People use less information when making a decision
2 Exceptions with Scent
1) Some may be offended
2) Some may have allergies
3 effects of scent
1) Scented environments leave a greater intention to revisit store
2) Higher purchase intentions with some items
3) Reduces sense of time spent shopping - underestimate time
A person who mixes scents for retail stores
Situational Characteristics become more important during these two times:
1) More time spent in environment
2) More hedonic the store
What are the 5 dimensions of situational characteristics
Physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task definition, and antecedent states
Atmosphere or environment
The sum of all physical features of a retail environment
The process managers use to manipulate the physical retail environment to create specific mood responses in shoppers
Include decor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and configurations of merchandise or other materials surrounding the stimulus object
Atmosphere is referred to as servicescape when describing a service business such as a hospital, bank, or restaurant
Effects of music (6)
1) Music increase sale of item if music matches item
2) Music can regulate speed of movement
3) Music triggers memories
4) Music promotes the health of blood cells
5) Music helps regulate our mood
6) Music should be used to match the values of the store/brand
Color has effect for two reasons:
1) Level of arousal
Deal with the other people present that could have an impact on the individual consumer's behavior
What happens when you shop with other people?
1) You visit more stores
2) You make more unplanned purchases
Situational characteristics that deal with the effect of time on consumer behavior
Example of Temporal Perspectives
The length of time available for a grocery shopping trip will have an effect on the amount of purchasing one does, as well as on the store selects
The mathematics of waiting in line
What do we know about queuing theory?
1) People do not like waiting in lines
2) Need to reduce psychological sense of wait time - give them something to do
The reason the consumption activity in occurring
What reasons do consumers give gifts?
Social expectations, ritualized situations, and to elicit and/or return favors
Features of the individual person that are not lasting characteristics, such as momentary moods or conditions
Transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event or object
A socially defined occasion that triggers a set of interrelated behaviors that occur in a structured format and that have symbolic meaning
Temporary states of being (ill, tired, having extra money, being broke, etc.)
Important findings on Antecedent states
1) A positive and a negative mood is associated with impulse purchases
2) Impulse purchases help us regulate our moods
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