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Campbell Biology Chapter 46

Animal Reproduction
STUDY
PLAY
sexual reproduction
process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
2 modes of animal reproduction
sexual and asexual
zygote
diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell
asexual reproduction
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Fission
form of asexual reproduction in which an organism splits into two, and each half grows new parts to become a complete organism
Budding
asexual reproduction in which a part of the parent organism pinches off and forms a new organism
parthenogenesis
process in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual (bees, ants)
ovulation
process in which an egg is released from the ovary
hermaphrodism
existance of reproductive organs of both sexes in the same individual
fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
external fertilization
the process by which the female lays eggs and the male fertilizes them once they are outside of the female
internal fertilization
the process by which the male places the sperm inside the females's body, where the eggs are fertilized
gonads
organs that produce gametes
spermathecae
sac in female reproductive system that holds sperm for extended periods
cloaca
A common opening for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts found in many nonmammalian vertebrates but in few mammals.
follicle
cluster of cells that surround, protect, and nourish a developing egg cell in an ovary
oocyte
a female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions
corpus luteum
ovarian structure that forms from a follicle after ovulation; secretes progesterone and estrogen
oviduct
either of a pair of fallopian tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
uterus
organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg can develop
endometrium
Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus, rich with blood vessels
cervix
necklike opening to the uterus
vagina
in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body
vulva
external female genitalia; includes the labia, hymen, clitoris, and the vaginal orifice
labia majora
two large folds of fatty tissue that are covered with hair on their outer surfaces; they enclose and protect the vagina
labia minora
Two smaller hairless folds of tissue that are located within the labia majora
hymen
a fold of tissue that partly covers the entrance to the vagina of a virgin
clitoris
organ of sensitive erectile tissue anterior to the opening of the female urethra
glans
head of the penis or clitoris
prepuce
foreskin
mammary glands
specialized organs in mammals that produce milk to nourish the young
testes
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
semininferous tubules
specialized coils of tiny tubules responsible for production of sperm, located in the testes
Leydig cells
A cell that produces testosterone and other androgens and is located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes.
scrotum
the external pouch that contains the testes
epididymis
structure in the male reproductive system in which sperm fully mature and are stored
ejaculation
ejection of sperm and fluid from the male urethra
vas deferens
a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory duct
a part of the seminal duct formed by the duct from the seminal vesicle and the vas deferens
urethra
tube that carries urine from the bladder and releases it from the body; in males, tube through which semen is released from the body
semen
the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract
seminal vesicles
produce about 60% of seminal fluid, these are located at the posterior wall of the urinary bladder close to the terminus of the ductus deferens. They produce a substance that nourishes the sperm passing through the tract or that promote the fertilizing capabiltiy of sperm in some way
prostate glands
secretes products directly into urethra through small ducts. contains anticoagulant enzymes and citrate.
Gametogenesis
the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis
spermogenesis
produces 4 functional spermatozoa
oogenesis
the production, growth, and maturation of an egg, or ovum
menstrual cycle
the female reproductive cycle, characterized by a monthly change of the lining of the uterus and the discharge of blood
ovarian cycle
cyclic changes that occur in the ovaries
Luteal phase
phase of the menstrual cycle characterized by the formation of the corpus luteum following ovulation
proliferative phase
Phase of reproductive cycle during which the uterine wall begins to thicken, The second phase of the uterine (endometrial) cycle, during which the endometrium (shed off during menstration is rebuilt). This phase of the cycle is under the control of estrogen, secreted from the follicle developing in the ovary during this time period. The proliferative phase typically lasts from day 6 to day 14 of the menstrual cycle.
Secretory phase
The third phase of the uterin (endometrial) cycle, during which the rebuilt endometrium is enhanced with glycogen and lipid stores. The secretory phase is primarily under the controll of progestone and estrogen (secreted from the copus luteum during this time period), adn typically lasts from day 15 to day 28 of the menstrual cycle.
menstrual flow phase
The portion of the uterine cycle when menstrual bleeding occurs
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
estrous cycle
A reproductive cycle characteristic of female mammals except higher primates, in which the nonpregnant endometrium is reabsorbed rather than shed, and sexual response occurs only during mid-cycle at estrus.
vasocongestion
In the sexual response cycle, engorgement of the blood vessels, particularly in the genital area, due to increased blood flow
myotonia
delayed relaxation of a muscle after contraction
coitus
sexual intercourse; copulation
cleavage
the repeated division of a fertilised ovum
blastocyst
A fluid-filled sphere formed about 5 days after fertilization of an ovum that is made up of an outer ring of cells and inner cell mass. THis is the structure that implants in the endometrium of the uterus.
gestation
period from fertilization of the ovum to birth
trophoblast
outer cells of the blastocyst that secrete enzymes that allow implantation
placenta
the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus
organogenesis
process of organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
lactation
the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands