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Terms in this set (20)
immigration and the city
- The market revolution increased the size of American cities, particularly the seaport cities. The proportion of America's population living in the cities increased from 7%
In 1820 to 20% in 1860, a rate of growth greater than at any other time in US history. Four largest cities in 1800 were the largest cities (New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston) in 1850. New York was the largest city with over 1 million people in 1860.
growth and immigration
-Increasing numbers of immigrants to the United States also contributed to rapid urban growth. Most of the immigrants to the United States from the 1820s to the 1860s were from Ireland and Germany. New industries needed workers and many of the changes in industry and transportation that accompanied the market revolution would not have been possible without the use of immigrant labor. Other states in the Midwest actively recruited settlers to farm. Life for new immigrants was often hard as they adjusted to America, but American cites struggled with the influx.
the labor movement
By the 1830s, the status of artisans had greatly deteriorated in the nation's cities. Worker protest against changing conditions first took shape in the form of party politics. In 1827 in Philadelphia, the Workingmen's Party campaigned for a ten-hour workday and the preservation of the artisan shop system. In 1833, craft group members formed the General Trades Union of New York. One year later, representatives from several local GTUs organized the National Trades Union. The pressures of the Panic of 1837 caused the union's collapse but the emergence of such unions was a visible sign of class-based community interest among workers. Urban politics were dominated by strong political organizations. In New York City, Irish and German participation in party politics virtually destroyed the Whig Party that had controlled New York before the immigrants' arrival. With immigrant support, the Democratic Tammany Hall organization controlled the city by the 1850s. Many of the first strikes in American labor history were led by women.
the first great awakening
resulted in renaissance from 1730-1740
rise of evangelicalism
Evangelical Protestants upset because of separation of church and state and funding had ended and enlightenment. Protestants worried about the spread of infidelity. By 1820's they saw Catholics, Chinese as real threat to country. Evangelicals believed that the common people and the elite needed saved. It sparked a wave of revivals that increased membership and aimed to preach, teach, and agitate until the unwashed were reborn and recommitted. These revivals were known as the Second Great Awakening. Was very different in the north and south
Second Great Awakening (in the south)
-Kentucky 1801-Revivals and camp meetings that preached conversion.
-Usually a dynamic minister who appealed to emotion rather than doctrine
-Conversion was seen as a rite of passage
-Stories told of dissenters who shook violently that they broke neck
-Southern revival was more emotional but less reform oriented. Although they preached temperance, no dueling, and improved morals, Southerners did not participate in the great reform movements largely due to conservatism of slaveholding elite
-Baptist and Methodists competed Methodists were big winners in south with a focus on community
Second Great Awakening (in the north)
Started with Timothy Dwight who was president of Yale. Calvinist who preached predestination and original sin which was not popular in a country like the US which was full of optimism and individualism.
-Realized needed a new approach-a disciple of Dwight's was Nathanial Thayer who pretty much eliminated the idea of original sin and came up with the idea of Free Agency. It brought Calvinism into a more popular vein.
-Lyman Beecher protégé of Thayer and really leads movement
-Radical element takes free agency and free will -Charles Finney Rochester NY Appeals to emotion. Wanted immediate conversion. Methods were questionable. If he didn't get it, he extend revival indefinitely
-Beecher saw Finney and his followers as disturbing and he did not like Finney because he allowed women to speak in church
-Split has a certain moral majority to it. We know better than you, just listen to us!!!!!!!!!
wanted to stamp out sin and social evil, trying to adjust the market revolution without violating their traditional moral and social values
-established missionary societies and traveled to India and societies that distributed bibles to the west
-tried to eliminate prostitution
10,000 prostitutes in NY. created shelters for former prostitutes and published names of men who frequented them in the newspaper
The largest reform organization of the period was the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance. The group, which was predominantly evangelical, saw excessive drinking as a national problem. They argued that men hurt their families by drinking, not only because of physical violence but also because they spent the family's income on liquor. The new middle class, with its focus on respectability and morality, found excessive drinking unacceptable. Temperance thus became both a social and a political movement. By the 1840s, alcohol consumption had been halved, making the temperance movement one of the most successful nineteenth-century reforms.
education and women teachers-Horace Mann
Women became deeply involved in reform efforts through their churches, supporting missionary work as well as educational reforms. Horace Mann and other education reformers believed that children were born innocent and that they needed proper nurturing and encouragement from public, tax-supported schools, to succeed in life. In the 1830s compulsory education laws were enacted throughout the North. As more children went to school, more teachers were hired to teach them. Teachers were commonly young, single women. Teaching offered women their first real career opportunity.
city of domesticity
women play special role as guardians of virtue and spiritual heads of the home
attacked "social evils" including prostitution, asylums, and the prison system.
how to solve reformers problem?
prostitutes would work as domestic servants. reformers quickly created charities and work for these poor prostitutes.
the asylum movement
let by dorthea dix. established state asylums. reformers pushed for prison reform, orphanages, and hospitals
african americans against slavery
Free African Americans instinctively opposed slavery and formed more than 50 antislavery groups by 1850. Black abolitionists, such as Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth, wrote and spoke against slavery. David Walker's 1829 Appeal went further and called for a slave rebellion and was blamed by many Southerners for Nat Turner's Rebellion.
the american colonization society
The American Colonization Society, formed in 1817 by Northern Quakers and border state slave owners, formulated the first national plan to "solve" the slavery question. Their idea was to gradually emancipate and relocate slaves in Africa.
A third group, led by William Lloyd Garrison, condemned slavery as sinful and demanded its immediate abolition. The moral horrors of slavery successfully involved many Northerners in the efforts of the abolitionist movement. The initial impact of the abolition movement in the South was to stifle dissent and make the lives of slaves even harder. Even in the North, the movement was controversial and met resistance, leading to riots, attacks on black churches, and the murder of Illinois abolitionist publisher Eliza P. Lovejoy in 1837.
abolitionism and politics
Abolitionism soon became a national political issue. Southerners, with the help of President Jackson, passed a gag rule in Congress prohibiting the discussion of antislavery petitions. Many Northerners viewed the gag rule as illegal censorship, and the rule was repealed in 1844. A major victory came with John Quincy Adams's 1839 defense of slaves captured from the Spanish ship Amistad, but abolitionists failed to achieve the moral unity as a movement that they had hoped to achieve. In 1840, the abolitionist movement formally split, with political activists forming the Liberty Party and later supporting the Republican Party in the 1850s.
the women rights movement
-The first women's rights convention in American history was the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848. The convention, which called for universal woman suffrage, was an outgrowth of nearly 20 years of women's participation in various social reform movements. Although conventions were held nearly every year after 1848, it would be another 72 years before women would be guaranteed the right to vote. Only recently have historians acknowledged the importance of women in the reform movements of the "Age of the Common Man."
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