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91 terms

A&P Chp15

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taste
Thew term general senses refers to sensitivty to all the following, except:
vibration
Which of the following is not one of the special senses?
involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.
The general senses:
any of the above
Which of the following can contribute to receptor specificity?
any of the above
Sensory transduction can involve which of the following?
inhibition of nuclei located
Central adaption refers to:
receptors respond in an all-or-nothing manner
Our perception of our environment is imperfect for all of the following reasons, except that:
fast pain
Which of the following is sometimes called "prickling pain"?
nociceptors
Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by:
all of the above
Thermoreceptors:
tactile receptor
A receptor that contains many mechanically gated ions channels would function best as a:
tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
A fast-adapting mechanoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a:
proprioceptors
Recepotors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called:
baroreceptors
Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called:
Ruffini corpuscles
Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called:
tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a:
lamellated corpuscle
A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is composed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen is a:
tactile (Merkel) disc.
A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic process of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum is a:
root hair plexus
A fast adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface is a:
all of the above
Which of the following kinds of information do fine-touch and light-pressure mechanoreceptors provide?
tonic response to temperature change
Which of the following is not a property of thermoreceptors?
in the skin
Chemoreceptors are located in all of the following, except:
posterior (dorsal) column
Which ascending carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?
spinocerebellar
The spinal tract carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the:
lateral spinothalamic
The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the:
anterior spinothalamic
The spinal tract that relays info concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the:
reticulospinal tract
Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord, except the:
first-order
The afferent neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ___ neuron.
all of the above
Examples of sensory modalities include:
third-order
Thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex are ___ neurons.
1
Only about ___ percent of the information provided by afferent fibers reaches the cerebral cortex and our awareness.
decussate before entering the medial lemniscus
Neurons from the nucleus gracilis:
sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions
We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because:
anterior corticospinal
The desending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the cord is the ___ tract.
lateral corticospinal
The descending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the medulla oblongata is the ___ tract.
rubrospinal
The spinal tract normally plays a minor role in the control of the distal muscles of the arms is the ___ tract.
vestibulospinal
The spinal tract that unconsciously maintains balance and muscle tone is the ___ tract.
tectospinal
The medial pathway that controls involuntary movements of head, neck, and arm position in response to sudden visual and auditory stimuli is the ___ tract
voluntary control over skeletal muscles
The pyramidal system provides:
pyramidal system
The corticospinal system is often referred to as the:
number of motor units in that region
The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the:
motor nuclei of cranial nerves
Axon of the corticobulbar tract terminate in the:
back
Based on the motor homunculus, which of the following body regions has the largest motor units?
corticospinal
The pyramids on trh ventral surface of the medulla oblongata are formed by fibers of the ___ tracts.
lateral corticospinal
Axon that decussate between the pyramids of the medulla oblongata belong to the ___ tracts
mamillary bodies
The upper motor neurons of the medial pathway are locked within any of the following, except the:
corticospinal
Tracts of the lateral and medial pathways include all of the following, except ___ tracts.
corticobulbar tract
A brain injury to a patient results in facial paralysis. Which descending tract is most likely affected?
provide the background patterns of movements involved in voluntary motor activities
The basal nuclei:
require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain
Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle:
voluntary motor activity
Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect:
touch sensation
The cerebellum adjusts motor activity in response to all of the following, except:
lower motor
Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called ___ neurons.
posterior (dorsal) column
Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?
both: inhibit neurons with GABA & stimulate neurons with acetylcholine
Some neurons within the basal nuclei are known to:
all of the above
Visceral sensory information enters the CNS on afferent fibers within:
all of the above
Mehanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations?
cold
If a friend is talking about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention ___ because it is not a special sense.
it must received by the somatosensory cortex
In order for a sensation to become a perception:
receptor specificity
Gustatory receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to:
be any of the above
A receptor potential may:
both: modality & location
Sensory information that arrives at the CNS is routed according to the ___ of the stimulus.
nociceptors; thermoreceptores
Pain is to ___ as cold is to ___.
decreases
Peripheral adaption ___ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS
baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
Tickle is to ___ as itch is to ___.
Markel; Meissner
Tactile discs are to ___ as tactile corpuscles are to __.
Baroreptor
___ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure.
referred pain
Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of:
two
Descending (motor) pathways involve at least __ motor neurons.
any of the above
Conscious and subconscious motor commands control skeletal muscles by traveling over the:
any of the above
The medial and lateral motor pathways can modify, or direct, skeletal muscle contractions by ___ lower motor neurons.
all of the above
The cerebellum relies on information from:
Anencephaly
___ is a rare condition in which the brain fails to develop at levels above the mesencephalon or inferior part of the diencephalon.
a link between a receptor and a cortical neuron
A labeled line is:
Cold; three or four; warm
___ receptors are __ times more numerous than __ receptors.
medial; gross; proximal
In relation to the medial and lateral pathways, the__ pathways controls __ movenets of trunk and __ limb muscles.
lateral; precise; distal
In relation to the medial and lateral pathways, the __ pathway controls __ movements of __ limb muscles.
nociceptor
A sensory receptor characterized peripherally as a free nerve ending and centrally uses glutamate and/ or substance P as neurotransmitters, would most likely be a:
the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated.
Sensory encoding of the perceived location of a stimulus depends on:
flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit)
Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic system produces:
has all these characteristics
Th cerebellum:
are fast adapting
All of the following are true of a prickling pain sensation, except that they:
first-order neuron
Identify the neuron labeled 1?
thalamus
Identify the neuron labeled 5?
3 and 4
Which of the following is true regarding the structure labeled 6?
1
Which structure conducts action potentials directly from a sensory receptor?
pain and crude touch sensations
Identify the type of information that travels along the structure labeled 2?
ventral root
Identify the structure labeled 5?
decussation
What occurs in the neural pathway at label 3?
primary motor cortex
Identify the structure labeled 1 in this neural pathway.
motor commands to skeletal muscles
Identify the type of information that travels along the structure labeled 4.