26 terms

Philosophy Exam 3

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Terms in this set (...)

Anarchist
The state is not justified in imposing it's wishes on you, for your autonomy is fundamental moral requirement
Absolutist
The state of nature is so dangerous that it is rational to give freedoms to the state to guarantee peace and security
Democratic
Persons contract with the state to give up some freedom for security, but we do not give up natural rights to life, representation and other goods
Libertarian
State should govern minimally for it's only function is to protect us from external and internal enemies
Liberal
There is a hypothetical contract in which parties in the original position choose a set of principles combining equal maximal liberty with social equality
Socialist/Marxist
Property should belong to the state so that the state might be use of it for human good
Thomas Hobbes
The Absolutist Answer
John Locke
The Democratic Answer
Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels
The Communist Answer
John Rawls
The Contemporary Liberal Answer
John Hospers
The Libertarian Answer
State of Nature
Everyone has the right to do anything they want and use any means at their disposal to achieve their desires
Creation of the Leviation or Sovereign State
1) Peace is possible only when individuals confer all their power & strength upon one man or one assembly of men
2) Everyone is subject to this sovereign who enforces this social contract by deterring injustice with effective punishment
Problems with the Absolutist Answer
Overly pessimistic view of humanity & offers no protection against an evil monarch
The Legislative Power
(Democratic)
governs for the purpose of the peace, safety and public good of the people
The two powers of the state of nature the individuals gives up
(Democratic)
The power to do whatsoever the things fit within the permission of the law of nature
The power to punish the crimes committed against the law of nature
What is the extent of the Legislative Power
(Democratic)
The legislative power of every common wealth is bounded by the trust of the society itself, the law of God, & the law of nature
The Legitimacy of Revolution
(Democratic)
When are we justified in dissolving the government
Who shall be judged whether the prince or legislative act contrary to their trust (Democratic)
The People
What is the purpose of the government (marxism)
The purpose of government is the preservation of life, liberty & estates if the people
The two principles necessary for a just society chosen behind the veil of ignorance (liberal)
1st- each citizen has a right to maximal basic liberties compatible with similar for others (c.f. the bill of rights)
2nd- Social and economic inequalities are to be arranged so that they are to everyone's advantage
Rawl's general conception of justice:
All social values- liberty and opportunity, income and wealth, and the bases of self-respect -- are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution of any or all, of these values is to everyone's advantage
Libertarian Thesis
Every person is the sole owner of his own life and has the right to act in accordance with his own choices, unless those actions infringe on the equal liberty of others
Libertarian perspective on 3 classes of laws
Class 1- laws protecting individuals against themselves (sexual behavior, drugs, and alcohol) are totally rejected
Class 2- Laws protecting individuals against aggressions by others (e.g murder, robbery, and fraud) are the sole functions of government
Class 3- Laws requiring people to help one another (e.g. welfare) are totally rejected
Critique of Libertarianism
1. Yes to limited government and its primary role as protector
2. Forgets the fallenness of humanity and the insidiousness of sin (LT message would result in increased drunkenness, drugs, failure to hold jobs, fractured families...)
Who has ultimate authority in Libertarian government
The ultimate authority of a free people depends on the consent of a free people