43 terms

World History: Russian Revolution and Totalitarianism

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The Duma
Russian national legislature
Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Bolsheviks
Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. They eventually seized power in Russia in 1917.
Trotsky
Russian revolutionary and Communist theorist who helped Lenin and built up the army
Marxism
the political, economic, and social principles and policies advocated by Karl Marx that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will untimately be superseded
Bloody Sunday
1905, peaceful protest to czar Nicholas II palace, led by Father Gapon, fired on by palace guards, 100s died
Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
collective farm
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the gov't
Benito Mussolini
(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
capitalism
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
1917 Russian Revolution
a social upheaval in Russia . It overthrew the tsarist autocracy and established Communism as the new form of government under Lenin.
causes of the 1917 Russian Revolution
surge in prices and scarcity of items, food shortage
communism
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
Great Purges
Stalin's mass systemic murder of millions to instill fear and to have someone to fight against; nearly a million people were executed between 1936 and 1941, and 4 million or 5 million more were sentenced to forced labor in the gulag. Also called the Terror.
Hammer and Sickle
A communist symbol that represents the workers and the farmers under one party rule.
Hitler
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945), Nazi leader and founder; had over 6 million Jews assassinated during the Holocaust
Mao Zedong
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Mensheviks
The party which opposed to the Bolsheviks. Started in 1903 by Martov, after dispute with Lenin. The Mensheviks wanted a democratic party with mass membership.
New Economic Party
NEP. Lenin's pragmatic approach to economic development, which mixed capitalism and socialism, allowing peasants to sell produce on the open market, but there was little to buy w/ money earned
Proletariat
Working class; Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
Red Army
built up under the leadership of Leon Trotsky; its victories secured communist power after the early years of turmoil following the Russian Revolution.
Revolution of 1905
a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. Some of it was directed against the government, while some was undirected. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Secret Police
Gestapo;
Stalin used them to monitor telephone lines, read mail, and plant informers. They arrested and executed millions of so-called traitors for Stalin.
Show Trials
Old bolsheviks confessed to crimes against the soviet union; Shown to the world- showed Stalin was right
Socialism
An economic and governmental system based on public ownership of the means of production and exchange.
Stalin's 5 year plan
the economic plan that Stalin launched in 1928, which set up economic goals for five-year periods. Its purpose was to transform Russia from an agricultural country into an industrial country
Totalitarianism
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator who has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war (1918).
Ukranian Genocide
10 million innocent people suffered and died from the artificial famine in Soviet Unkraine
White Army
Anti-Bolshevik army in the Russian Civil War
Brown Shirts
Hitler's private army of supporters;
Gangs of fascist German thugs who used violence and terrorism to silence the critics of their nation's dictator
March on Rome
A strike "led" by Mussolini in which 30,000 or so Blackshirts marched to Rome and Mussolini was legally put into power
Treaty of Versailles
(WW) 1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Nazi Party
the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933
Hitler Youth
Germany's young men and women who joined the Nazi political party and pledged their allegiance to Germany and Adolf Hitler. The Hitler Youth organization "brainwashed" the children and convinced them of German superiority.
Mussolini
Italian fascist dictator (1883-1945)
Black Shirts
A private army under Mussolini who destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialists out of the city governments of Northern Italy.
5 year plan
Stalin's economics. Forced, rapid industrialization, targets for production. Devastating to agriculture, complete state takeover
Propaganda
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
censorship
Control of what people read or write or see or hear; efforts to prohibit free expression of ideas.
Fascism
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Appeasement
Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
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