Cell Transport

Terms related to passive & acitive transport
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Diffusion
Movement of particles or molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Osmosis
Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Selectively pemeable membrane
A membrane that allows certain materials to pass through, but not others
Tonicity
A description of the relative solute concentration in a solution as compared to another solution.
Equilibrium
The condition that exists in system when there is a relatively equal distribution of a particular molecule
Hypertonic
A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than another.
Hypotonic
A solution that has a lower concentration of solutes than another.
Isotonic
Two solutions that have an equal concentration of solutes.
Solute
substance that is dissolved in a solution
Solvent
the liquid that contains the dissolved solute in a solution.
Cell Membrane
regulates and controls what enters or leaves the cell
Facilitated Diffusion
Use of carrier PROTEINS for diffusion, does not require energy for a molecule to travel across the membrane
Moves molecules from high to low solute concentration
Active Transport
movement of molecules or ion into or out of the cell against its concentration gradient (from low to high) and requires an input of energy.
Endocytosis
movement of substances into the cell by creating a new vacuole at the cell membrane. requires energy.
Exocytosis
movement of substances out of a cell by merging a vacuole with the cell membrane. requires energy.
Hypertonic
the left side is _____ compared to the right side.
Hypotonic
The right side is _____ compared to the left side.
right, left, osmosis
Water will move from the _____ to the _____ by _____.
Hypotonic
The left side is _____ compared to the right side.
Hypertonic
The right side is _____ compared to the left side.
left, right, osmosis
Water will move from the _____ to the _____ by _____.
Cell Membrane
Composed of a phospholipid bilayer
Phospholipid
molecule that makes up cell membranes. It has a hydrophilic "head" and two hydrophobic "tails".
Hydrophilic
water loving. substances that easily mix with water.
Hydrophobic
water hating. substances that will not mix with water.
Transport Protein
Proteins within the cell membrane that function to move substances into or out of the cell.
Passive Transport
molecules move with the concentration gradient from high to low concentration NO energy required.
Types of Passive Transport
Diffusion, Osmosis and Facilitated Diffusion
Types of Active Transport
Endocytosis (phagocytosis and pinocytosis)
Exocytosis, and Protein Pumps - Lower Concentration to Higher Concentration
membrane pump
These transport from low to high concentration
Requiring the expenditure of energy (ATP).
concentration gradient
a region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases.
transport protein
an embedded protein that helps a certain type of substance to cross the membrane
diffusion
the movement of a substance down its concentration, from a region where it is more concentrated to a region where it is less concentrated.
passive transport
the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane with no expenditure of energy
osmosis
the diffusion of water across a membrane
facilitated diffusion
the passage of molecules down their concentration gradient across a membrane with the assistance of specific transport proteins, requiring no energy expenditure.
active transport
the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient, through specific transport proteins and requiring ATP
exocytosis
the secretion of molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing them with the plasma membrane.
endocytosis
cellular uptake of molecules & particles by the formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane.
phospholipid bilayer
a double layer of phospholipid molecules that form membranes in cells
hydrophobic
the tail of a phospholipid molecule that is repelled by water
hydrophilic
the head of a phospholipid molecule that is attracted to water
carrier protein
transport proteins in which only one end at a time is open to the molecule
channel protein
transport proteins which form an open channel for specific molecules to pass; both ends open at once
ATP
the molecule that provides energy for cellular processes by breaking a bond
cholesterol
a packing molecule important in cell membranes
hypotonic solution
contains less solute concentration than the cell; water will tend to enter the cell and swell it
hypertonic solution
when a cell is placed in a solution and the concentration of the solute outside of the cell is higher than it is inside
isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
solvent
In a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves.