The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with
One difficulty with a purely attributional explanation of depression is that negative attributions
may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression.
While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from
a panic attack.
Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.
Some people are more vulnerable to PTSD because they have a sensitive ________, which floods the body with stress hormones.
A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by
a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.
Irrational beliefs and hypervigilance to any possible threats can sometimes contribute to anxiety disorders. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders can be affected by
ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n) ________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder.
Repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________ as repeatedly washing your hands is to ________.
Julius is obsessed with avoiding germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 times a day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his maladaptive bathing because this behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety on many past occasions. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.
A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M'Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to
The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of
The incidence of OCD is greatest among
teens and young adults.
DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to
facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.
Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least five times greater risk of suicide.
major depressive disorder
Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
an anxiety disorder.
Of those who commit suicide, about ________ have tried to kill themselves before and ________ discussed suicide beforehand.
A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of
Brain scans of PTSD patients suffering memory flashbacks reveal an aberrant and persistent activation of the
right temporal lobe.
Generalized anxiety disorder is ________ common among men than women and ________ common among younger adults than older adults.
Gaining relief from negative thoughts through the distraction of pain is one of the motives for
Mental health workers label behavior as disordered when it is
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is
Brain scans of people with ________ reveal higher than normal activity in brain areas involved in habitual behaviors.
An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of
Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with
major depressive disorder.
Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of
A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias.
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.
Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor
Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________ among men than women.
Neuroscientists have found decreased axonal white matter in the brains of people with
Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?
For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
major depressive disorder.
We can more easily extinguish a fear of driving a car than a fear of holding snakes. This is best explained from a ________ perspective.
Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from
Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate
A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as
When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of
Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior? Answer A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder C. panic disorder D. anorexia nervosa
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
The heritability of bipolar disorder has been estimated to be ________ than the heritability of major depressive disorder and ________ than the heritability of generalized anxiety disorder.
According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to
feel overwhelmed by all they have to do.
Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from
generalized anxiety disorder.
Drugs that alleviate mania tend to reduce levels of the neurotransmitter
Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression?
Depression is more likely to be a shared tendency between identical twins than between fraternal twins. This most clearly supports explanations of this mood disorder from a ________ perspective.
Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates
a biopsychosocial approach.
A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.
Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of
Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from