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The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with

obsessive-compulsive disorder.

One difficulty with a purely attributional explanation of depression is that negative attributions

may be a consequence rather than a cause of depression.

While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from

a panic attack.

Professor Pott emphasizes that normal depression serves an adaptive function by slowing people down and preventing them from engaging in life-threatening behaviors. The professor's emphasis best illustrates the ________ perspective.


Some people are more vulnerable to PTSD because they have a sensitive ________, which floods the body with stress hormones.

limbic system

A generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by

a continuous state of tension, apprehension, and autonomic nervous system arousal.

Irrational beliefs and hypervigilance to any possible threats can sometimes contribute to anxiety disorders. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders can be affected by

cognitive influences.

ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n) ________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder.

less; increasing

Repeatedly thinking about your own death is to ________ as repeatedly washing your hands is to ________.

obsession; compulsion

Julius is obsessed with avoiding germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 times a day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his maladaptive bathing because this behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety on many past occasions. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a ________ perspective.


A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M'Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to

be insane.

The prominent feature of mood disorders is the experience of

emotional extremes.

The incidence of OCD is greatest among

teens and young adults.

DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to

facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.

Compared with the general population, those who have suffered ________ have at least five times greater risk of suicide.

major depressive disorder

Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of

an anxiety disorder.

Of those who commit suicide, about ________ have tried to kill themselves before and ________ discussed suicide beforehand.

one-third; most

A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often

bias our perceptions of the labeled person.

George Frideric Handel composed his Messiah during three weeks of intense, creative energy. Many believe Handel suffered a mild form of

bipolar disorder

Brain scans of PTSD patients suffering memory flashbacks reveal an aberrant and persistent activation of the

right temporal lobe.

Generalized anxiety disorder is ________ common among men than women and ________ common among younger adults than older adults.

less; more

Gaining relief from negative thoughts through the distraction of pain is one of the motives for

non-suicidal self-injury.

Mental health workers label behavior as disordered when it is

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.

Freud suggested that for those suffering a generalized anxiety disorder, the anxiety is


Brain scans of people with ________ reveal higher than normal activity in brain areas involved in habitual behaviors.

obsessive-compulsive disorder

An incapacitating and highly distressing fear about being embarrassed in the presence of others is most characteristic of

social phobia.

Sluggishness and inactivity are most likely to be associated with

major depressive disorder.

Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of


A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias.

genetic predispositions

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are

sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and in most cases cured.

Most political dissidents who survive dozens of episodes of torture do not later exhibit PTSD. This best illustrates survivor


Suicide rates in the United States are ________ among Whites than Blacks and ________ among men than women.

higher; higher

Neuroscientists have found decreased axonal white matter in the brains of people with

bipolar disorder

Which perspective has emphasized the impact of learned helplessness on depression?


For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from

major depressive disorder.

We can more easily extinguish a fear of driving a car than a fear of holding snakes. This is best explained from a ________ perspective.


Rats that received unpredictable electric shocks in a laboratory experiment subsequently became apprehensive when returned to that same laboratory setting. This best illustrates that anxiety disorders may result from

classical conditioning.

Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate


A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as


When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of

self-fulfilling prophecies.

Which of the following disorders most often coexists with a learning disorder or with defiant and temper-prone behavior?
obsessive-compulsive disorder
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
panic disorder
anorexia nervosa

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

The heritability of bipolar disorder has been estimated to be ________ than the heritability of major depressive disorder and ________ than the heritability of generalized anxiety disorder.

greater; greater

According to the social-cognitive perspective, women are more vulnerable to depression than men because they are more likely to

feel overwhelmed by all they have to do.

Rishi, a college student, complains that he feels apprehensive and fearful most of the time but doesn't know why. Without warning, his heart begins to pound, his hands get icy, and he breaks out in a cold sweat. Rishi most likely suffers from

generalized anxiety disorder.

Drugs that alleviate mania tend to reduce levels of the neurotransmitter


Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.


Which perspective suggests that explaining our own failures in terms that are global, stable, and internal contributes to depression?


Depression is more likely to be a shared tendency between identical twins than between fraternal twins. This most clearly supports explanations of this mood disorder from a ________ perspective.


Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach.

A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.


Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of


Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from

a phobia.

The risk of suicide is greatest when people

begin to rebound from their depression.

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