75 terms

World War 1 - Test

world war 1

Terms in this set (...)

Causes of World War I
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, creation of alliances (Central and Allied Powers); immediate cause: assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (heir to Austrian throne) by a Serb on June 28, 1914
Triple Alliance, Triple Entente
the triple alliance was made up of germany, italy, and austria hungary and the triple entente was made up of russia france and great britain. Italy eventually switched sides to the tiple entante, which made up the majority of the world power
Countries of world war 1
France, Russia, Britain
Austria, Germany, Ottoman Empire
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire
Great Britain, France, Russia
Eastern Front
In WWI, the region along the German-Russian Border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks.
Schlieffen Plan
Attack plan by Germans, proposed by Schliffen, lightning quick attack against France. Proposed to go through Belgium then attack France, Belgium resisted, other countries took up their aid, long fight, used trench warfare.
Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles?
1)stripped Germany of all military 2) Germany had to repair war damages($33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Belgium in ww1
was used as a back door for germany after they conquered it but belgium had britan allies so english got into the war
Kaiser Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
Blank check
Germany swears to support Austria-Hungary in any actions it takes against Serbia
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria Hungary assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the causes of WW I.
Emperor Franz Joseph
Last emperor in Austria-Hungary and he ruled from 1848-1916. He adopted liberal policies in Hungary and became king in 1867
WW1 Strategies
Tanks, poison gas, land mines to blow up trenches, advanced artillery, trench warfare
weapon that caused stalemate
machine gun
A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire
Why did the U.S. enter World War I?
-Germany was attacking American ships
-Violating international law (germany)
- The Zimmerman note
policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
pride in one's country
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms
payment for damages after a war
George Clemenceau
French prime minister in last years of WWI and during Versailles Conference of 1919. Pushed for heavy reparations from Germans. Wanted to make Germans suffer and help break Germany up.
Vittorio Orlando
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Lloyd George
British prime minister, although he was re-elected for his popular campaign of making Germany pay for the war, he ended up fighting the most for German interests in the Versailles Treaty because he feared communism
Germans had taken over the River and pushed back Britain and France in a series of attacks; Battle near paris that ended Germany's hope of swift victory, the first battle of WWI happened where the French and British stopped the Germans and the Schlieffen Plan.
A battle in WWI. Is considered some of the bloodiest fighting in WWI and the German offense was stopped; offensive battle on the western front initiated by Germany in which they hoped to crush France and taken them out of the war, however France was in a very good defensive position and French held it for 10 months. Nearly a million killed. French drew reserve troops from the Somme to help defend. No territory was gained; Battle in WWI that ended in massive casualties and had little direct result
A five-month offensive between July and November 1916 in the Somme river area in France. It began with a massive week-long British artillery barrage that proved futile, since the Germans just sheltered in their dug-outs until the shelling stopped, then machine-gunned waves of British troops who were crossing no-man's land. On the first day alone the British lost 60,000 men. The battle ended in a stalemate, after torrential rain turned the trenches into a quagmire. There were more than 650,000 casualties on both sides, and although British had relieved the French at Verdun, they had only advanced about five miles.
In 1914 during World War I a German army under the command of Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg won an important victory over two Russian armies in the Second Battle of Tannenberg who had invaded East Prussia.
armenian genocide
the Turkish government organized the department of the armenians in the Ottoman Empire and over a million were murdered or starved - one of the first genocides of the 20th centuries
information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause
(n.) a final proposal or statement of conditions
woodrow wilson
After World War I, this United States president sought to reduce the risk of war by writing the Fourteen Points that influenced the creation of the League of Nations.
annie oakley
United States sharpshooter who was featured in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show (1860-1926)
zimmerman note
A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
gallipoli campaign
Allied invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula in the Straits, unprofitable fighting for months, huge casualties but the allies had to withdraw, so a large victory to Turkish forces
paris peace conference
The great rulers and countries excluding germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
wilson's peace plan
this was called the fourteen points. this was meant to pervent international problems from causing another war. the first point in this was to end secret agreements. next the on wilson thought was most important was the league of nations which was to protect any nation large or small for independence.
brusilov offensive
Offensive from the Russians; failure because of poor army performance and weak industrialization
unrestricted submarine
type of warfare used by Germany in WWI where they attacked any ship with no warning
sinking of lusitania
When German submarines sunk an unarmed British ship killing 139 Americans
us enter WWI
Sinking of the Louistania, Zimmerman note, unrestricted submarine warfare, selling weapons, loaning money to allies. Wanted to make the world safe for democracy
nivelle offensive
Frenchmen Nivelle put together a campaign to drive Germany out, but half of french army resisted (widespread mutiny) and so did factory workers (49 mutineers shot)
Italy vs. Austria-Hungary; largest Italian defeat
battle in World War I (1914)
ex. heavy but indecisive fighting as the Allies and the Germans both tried to break through the lines of the others
Douglas Haig
Controversial British commander on the Western Front and the driving force behind some disasters like Somme and Paschendaele
French field marshal who commanded the Allied armies in France during World War II (1852-1931)
French military commander in French Colonies and WWI, credited with being the intelligence that won the First Battle of the Marne in 1914.
French Military Leader
Lead the Battle of Verdun
leader of the new French government which sued for armistice from Germany
French leader who united all Allied command; his axiom="To make war is to attack"
German chief of staff whose hesitant strategy stalled the advance of the German army through France
German General, replaced Moltke after he failed at the Marne. Very cruel General, in favor of poison gas.
general who assisted Hindenburg, he helped to defeat the Russians at Tannenburg and the Masurian Lake
President of Germany who died and was replaced by Hitler
treaty of brest litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
big bertha
Famous German long-range guns
trench warfare
Fighting with trenches, mines, and barbed wire. Horrible living conditions, great slaughter, no gains, stalemate, used in WWI.
mustafa kemal
Turkish statesman who abolished the caliphate and founded Turkey as a modern secular state (1881-1938)
enver pasha
leader who took an army of Turks to fight the Russians but the army was destroyed by the Russian winters and under supplied
tsar nicholas
the Romanov ruler of Russia who was forced to abdicate his throne and flee with his family
baron manfred
a german soldier "Red Baron".
spanish flu
Pandemic that spread around the world in 1918, killing more than 50 million people
lost generation
generation lost because of the casualties caused by the war, disease and starvation
provisions of treaty of versailles
1)stripped Germany of all military 2) Germany had to repair war damages($33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
independent countries after WWI
-Ethiopia/Liberia stayed independent
polish corridor
the strip of territory cut through Germany to allow Poland access to seaport, from Versailles, led to Baltic Sea
technology of WWI
germany used poison gas; other things include machine guns, long range artillery, airplanes, tanks, the draft, zepplin
edmund grey
Admininistered britains foreign policy, felt britains relationship to france was very important.
PLan xvii
put bulk of army on German border and fight a lot. French plan of attack
Otto van bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia (largest state in Northern Germany); wanted a greater, unified Germany (smaller Southern states to join Prussia; preferred "iron and blood" to diplomacy
policy of building up strong armed forces to prepare for war
alliance system
defense agreement among nations
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it