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Chapter 12

acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

A disorder in which a virus (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) infects specific types of immune system cells. This leaves the person with reduced immune function and, in turn, defenseless against numerous infectious agents; typically contributes to the person's death.


A collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and, ideally, improving the characteristics of plants, animals, and other forms of life.


An extreme shortage of food, which leads to massive starvation in a population; often associated with crop failures, war, and political unrest.
(extreme form of chronic hunger)

food desert

An impoverished area with little access to healthy foods - where 33% or 500 people, whichever is less, live more than a mile from a grocery store in an urban area or more than 10 miles away in a rural area.

food insecure

Condition in which the quality, variety, and/or desirability of the diet is reduced and there is difficulty at times providing enough food for everyone in the household.

food insecurity

A condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food.
Difficulty providing enough food for everyone in the household

gender and development (GAD) approach

Understanding the roles and responsibilities of both men and women in the process of sustainable development.

genetic engineering

Manipulation of the genetic makeup of any organism with recombinant DNA technology.

genetically modified organism (GMO)

Any organism created by genetic engineering.

green revolution

This refers to increases in crop yields that accompanied the introduction of new agricultural technologies in less-developed countries, beginning in the 1960s. The key technologies were highyielding, disease-resistant strains of rice, wheat, and corn; greater use of fertilizer and water; and improved cultivation practices.

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

The virus that leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).


The primarily physiological (internal) drive to find and eat food.


The basic framework of a system of organization. For a society, this includes roads, bridges, telephones, and other basic technologies.


Failing health that results from longstanding dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs.

recombinant DNA technology

A test tube technology that rearranges DNA sequences in an organism by cutting the DNA, adding or deleting a DNA sequence, and rejoining DNA molecules with a series of enzymes.

sustainable agriculture

Farming systems that can indefinitely maintain their productivity
Agricultural system that provides a secure living for farm families; maintains the natural environment and resources; supports the rural community; and offers respect and fair treatment to all involved, from farm workers to consumers to the animals raised for food.

sustainable development

Economic growth that will simultaneously reduce poverty, protect the environment, and preserve natural capital.


Organism that contains genes originally present in another organism.


Failing health that results from a longstanding dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs.


primary cause of malnutrition and chronic hunger worldwide

crop failure

most common cause of famine


2011 federal poverty level for family of four

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

new name for the Food Stamp program

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

program for low-income pregnant and lactating women and their young children

poverty and homelessness

two conditions associated with hunger in the U.S.


percentage of the world population living in developing countries

political division or war

can impede distribution of available food

safe water supply

single most effective health advantage for people

inadequate shelter and sanitation

contributing factors when death occurs from undernutrition


life stange when undernutrition poses the greatest threat

pre-term labor or birth

A birth that takes place before 37 weeks of gestation

cigarette smoking

primary cause of low birth weight in industrialized countries


has a cyclical relationship to undernutrition

stunted growth

seen in 1/3 of children under 5 years of age

50 million

number of people that live in, at, or below poverty level in the United States

1 billion

approximate number of people that suffer malnourishment worldwide
& uncertain about their next meal


country in which the greatest number of malnourished people found

33 million

number of world's people with HIV


country that is home to the majority of the world's population infected with HIV

vitamin A

nutrient closely tied to immune function


nutrient most associated with anemia worldwide

vitamin A deficiency

leading nutritional cause of blindness worldwide

2 billion

approximate number of people worldwide that suffer from some form of micronutrient malnutrition

963 million

number of people that experience food insecurity

iron, zinc, vitamin A, various B vitamins, iodine

critical micronutrients missing from diets worldwide

crop failure, bad weather, war/political unrest

causes of famine

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