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46 terms

Undernutrition Throughout the World

Chapter 12
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acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A disorder in which a virus (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) infects specific types of immune system cells. This leaves the person with reduced immune function and, in turn, defenseless against numerous infectious agents; typically contributes to the person's death.
biotechnology
A collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and, ideally, improving the characteristics of plants, animals, and other forms of life.
famine
An extreme shortage of food, which leads to massive starvation in a population; often associated with crop failures, war, and political unrest.
(extreme form of chronic hunger)
food desert
An impoverished area with little access to healthy foods - where 33% or 500 people, whichever is less, live more than a mile from a grocery store in an urban area or more than 10 miles away in a rural area.
food insecure
Condition in which the quality, variety, and/or desirability of the diet is reduced and there is difficulty at times providing enough food for everyone in the household.
food insecurity
A condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food.
Difficulty providing enough food for everyone in the household
gender and development (GAD) approach
Understanding the roles and responsibilities of both men and women in the process of sustainable development.
genetic engineering
Manipulation of the genetic makeup of any organism with recombinant DNA technology.
genetically modified organism (GMO)
Any organism created by genetic engineering.
green revolution
This refers to increases in crop yields that accompanied the introduction of new agricultural technologies in less-developed countries, beginning in the 1960s. The key technologies were highyielding, disease-resistant strains of rice, wheat, and corn; greater use of fertilizer and water; and improved cultivation practices.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
The virus that leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
hunger
The primarily physiological (internal) drive to find and eat food.
infrastructure
The basic framework of a system of organization. For a society, this includes roads, bridges, telephones, and other basic technologies.
malnutrition
Failing health that results from longstanding dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs.
recombinant DNA technology
A test tube technology that rearranges DNA sequences in an organism by cutting the DNA, adding or deleting a DNA sequence, and rejoining DNA molecules with a series of enzymes.
sustainable agriculture
Farming systems that can indefinitely maintain their productivity
Agricultural system that provides a secure living for farm families; maintains the natural environment and resources; supports the rural community; and offers respect and fair treatment to all involved, from farm workers to consumers to the animals raised for food.
sustainable development
Economic growth that will simultaneously reduce poverty, protect the environment, and preserve natural capital.
transgenic
Organism that contains genes originally present in another organism.
undernutrition
Failing health that results from a longstanding dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs.
poverty
primary cause of malnutrition and chronic hunger worldwide
crop failure
most common cause of famine
$22,350/year
2011 federal poverty level for family of four
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
new name for the Food Stamp program
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
program for low-income pregnant and lactating women and their young children
poverty and homelessness
two conditions associated with hunger in the U.S.
75%
percentage of the world population living in developing countries
political division or war
can impede distribution of available food
safe water supply
single most effective health advantage for people
inadequate shelter and sanitation
contributing factors when death occurs from undernutrition
pregnancy
life stange when undernutrition poses the greatest threat
pre-term labor or birth
A birth that takes place before 37 weeks of gestation
cigarette smoking
primary cause of low birth weight in industrialized countries
illness
has a cyclical relationship to undernutrition
stunted growth
seen in 1/3 of children under 5 years of age
50 million
number of people that live in, at, or below poverty level in the United States
1 billion
approximate number of people that suffer malnourishment worldwide
& uncertain about their next meal
Asia
country in which the greatest number of malnourished people found
33 million
number of world's people with HIV
Africa
country that is home to the majority of the world's population infected with HIV
vitamin A
nutrient closely tied to immune function
iron
nutrient most associated with anemia worldwide
vitamin A deficiency
leading nutritional cause of blindness worldwide
2 billion
approximate number of people worldwide that suffer from some form of micronutrient malnutrition
963 million
number of people that experience food insecurity
iron, zinc, vitamin A, various B vitamins, iodine
critical micronutrients missing from diets worldwide
crop failure, bad weather, war/political unrest
causes of famine