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mechanical advantage

the number of times that a machine increases an input force

actual mechanical advantage

the ratio of the output force to the input force in a machine

ideal mechanical advantage (IMA)

the mechanical advantage of a machine in the absence of friction


the percentage of the work input that becomes work output in a machine


a rigid bar that is free to move around a fixed point


the fixed point a lever rotates around

input arm

the distance between the fulcrum in a lever and the input force

output arm

the distance between the fulcrum in a lever and the output force

wheel and axle

a simple machine that consists of two rigidly attached disks or cylinders, each one with a different radius

inclined plane

a slanted surface along which a force moves an object to a different elevation


a V-shaped object whose sides are two inclined planes sloped toward each other


an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder


a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel

compound machine

a combination of two or more simple machines that operate together

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