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Psych Ch 4
Terms in this set (51)
The state of being aware of oneself, one's thoughts, and/or the environment; includes various levels of conscious awareness.
Detection, encoding, and sometimes storage of information without conscious effort or awareness.
The ability to focus awareness on a small segment of information that is available through our sensory systems.
One barrier to studying consciousness is the fact that it is _________________ , pertaining only to the person who experiences it.
While studying for an exam, your sensory systems absorb an inordinate amount of information from your surroundings, most of which escapes your awareness. Because of _________________ , you generally do not get overwhelmed with incoming sensory data.
Inattentional blindness is the tendency to "look without seeing." Given what you know about selective attention, how would you advise someone to avoid inattentional blindness?
Answers will vary. The ability to focus awareness on a small segment of information that is available through our sensory systems is called selective attention. Although we are exposed to many different stimuli at once, we tend to pay particular attention to abrupt or unexpected changes in the environment. Such events may pose a danger and we need to be aware of them. However, selective attention can cause us to be blind to objects directly in our line of vision. This "looking without seeing" can have serious consequences, as we fail to see important occurrences in our surroundings. Our advice would be to try to remain aware of the possibility of inattentional blindness, in particular when you are in situations that could involve serious injury.
circadian rhythm (sər-ˈkā-dē-ən)
The daily patterns roughly following the 24-hour cycle of daylight and darkness; and 24-hour cycle of physiological and behavioral functioning.
Brain waves that indicate an alert, awake state.
Brain waves that indicate a relaxed, drowsy state.
non-rapid eye movement (non-REM)
The nondreaming sleep that occurs during sleep Stages 1 to 4.
Brain waves that indicate light sleep.
Brain waves that indicate a deep sleep.
rapid eye movement (REM)
The stage of sleep associated with dreaming; sleep characterized by bursts of eye movements, with brain activity similar to that of a waking state, but with a lack of muscle tone.
A neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, which includes lapses into sleep and napping.
REM sleep behavior disorder
A sleep disturbance in which the mechanism responsible for paralyzing the body during REM sleep is not functioning, resulting in the acting out of dreams.
obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea (hī-pop-ˈnē-ə)
A serious disturbance of non-REM sleep characterized by complete absence of air flow (apnea) or reduced air flow (hypopnea).
Sleep disorder characterized by an inability to fall asleep or stay asleep, impacting both the quality and the quantity of sleep.
A disturbance of non-REM sleep, generally occurring in children; characterized by screaming, staring fearfully, and usually no memory of the episode the following morning.
Frightening dreams that occur during REM sleep.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus obtains its information about day and night from:
retinal ganglion cells.
retinal ganglion cells.
In which of the following stages of sleep do adults spend the most time at night?
Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and other sleep-related disturbances such as ____________, which refers to an abrupt loss of muscle tone that occurs when a person is awake.
Make a drawing of the 90-minute sleep cycle. Label each stage with its associated brain wave(s).
Drawings will vary; see Infographic 4.2. A normal adult sleeper begins in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Stage 1, the lightest sleep, is associated with theta waves. Stage 2 includes evidence of sleep spindles. Stages 3 and 4 are associated with delta waves and deep sleep. Sleep then becomes less deep as the sleeper works back from Stage 4 to Stage 1. But instead of waking up, the sleeper enters rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Each cycle lasts about 90 minutes, with the average adult sleeper looping through five cycles per night.
The apparent meaning of a dream; the remembered story line of a dream.
The hidden meaning of a dream, often concealed by the manifest content of the dream.
This theory proposes that humans respond to random neural activity while in REM sleep as if it has meaning.
Freud believed dreams have two levels. The __________________ refers to the apparent meaning of the dream, whereas the __________________ refers to its hidden meaning.
manifest content; latent content
According to the __________________ , dreams have no meaning whatsoever. Instead, the brain is responding to random neural activity as if it has meaning.
What occurs in the brain when you dream?
EEG and PET scan technologies can demonstrate neural activity while we sleep. During REM sleep, the motor areas of the brain are inhibited, but a great deal of neural activity is occurring in the sensory areas of the brain. The activation-synthesis model suggests dreams result when the brain responds to this random neural activity as if it has meaning. The creative human mind makes up stories to match the neural activity. The vestibular system is also active during REM sleep, resulting in sensations of floating or flying. The neurocognitive theory of dreams proposes that a network of neurons in the brain (including some areas in the limbic system and forebrain) are necessary for dreaming to occur.
Your 6-year-old cousin does not have dreams with a true story line; her dreams seem to be fleeting images. This supports the neurocognitive theory of dreams, as does the fact that:
until children are around 13 to 15 years old, their reported dreams are less vivid.
dream content is not the same across cultures.
children younger than 13 can report very complicated story lines from their dreams.
dream content is the same for people, regardless of age.
until children are around 13 to 15 years old, their reported dreams are less vivid.
psychoactive drugs .
Substances that can cause changes in psychological activities such as sensation, perception, attention, judgment, memory, self-control, emotion, thinking, and behavior; substances that cause changes in conscious experiences
A class of psychoactive drugs that depress or slow down activity in the central nervous system.
Depressant drug that decreases neural activity and reduces anxiety; a type of sedative.
A class of psychoactive drugs that minimizes perceptions of pain.
A class of psychoactive drugs that cause a sense of euphoria; a drug that imitates the endorphins naturally produced in the brain.
A class of drugs that increase neural activity in the central nervous system.
Stimulant drugs; methamphetamine falls in this class of drugs.
A group of psychoactive drugs that can produce hallucinations (auditory, visual, or kinesthetic), distorted sensory experiences, alterations of mood, and distorted thinking.
lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (lə-ˈsər-jik; dī-ˌe-thə-ˌla-ˌmīd)
A synthetically produced, odorless, tasteless, and colorless hallucinogen that is very potent; produces extreme changes in sensations and perceptions.
methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (methˈı̆-lēn-dī-okˈsē-methˈamfetˈă-mēn)
A synthetic drug chemically similar to the stimulant methamphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline; produces a combination of stimulant and hallucinogenic effects.
tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (te-trə-hīdrə-kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯl)
The active ingredient of marijuana.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, the body no longer functions normally without the drug.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a condition in which the body becomes dependent and then reacts when the drug is withheld; a sign of physiological dependence.
delirium tremens (DTs)
Withdrawal symptoms that can occur when a heavy drinker suddenly stops or significantly cuts down alcohol consumption; can include sweating, restlessness, hallucinations, severe tremors, and seizures.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a condition in which the body requires more and more of the drug to create the original effect; a sign of physiological dependence.
With constant use of some psychoactive drugs, a strong desire or need to continue using the substance occurs without the evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms.
An altered state of consciousness allowing for changes in perceptions and behaviors, which result from suggestions made by a hypnotist.
Match the agent in the left column with the most appropriate outcome in the right column:
____ 1. depressant a. blocks pain
____ 2. opioid b. slows down activity in the CNS
____ 3. alcohol c. increases neural activity in the CNS
____ 4. cocaine d. cirrhosis of the liver
An acquaintance described an odorless, tasteless, and colorless substance he took many years ago. He discussed a variety of changes to his sensations and perceptions, including seeing colors and spirals. It is likely he had taken which of the following hallucinogens:
Dr. Julien uses a range of ________________ to dull the perception of pain, to inhibit memories of surgery, and to change a variety of psychological activities.
People often describe dangerous or risky behaviors as being addictive. You might hear a character in a movie say that he is addicted to driving fast, for example. Given what you have learned about physiological and psychological dependence, how would you determine if behaviors are problematic?
To determine if behaviors should be considered problematic, one could evaluate the presence of tolerance or withdrawal, both signs of physiological dependence. With tolerance, one's system adapts to a drug over time and therefore needs more and more of the substance to re-create the original effect. Withdrawal can occur with constant use of some psychoactive drugs, when the body has become dependent and then reacts when the drug is withheld. In some cases, with psychological dependence, behaviors may be problematic when there is a strong desire or need to continue the behavior, but with no evidence of tolerance or withdrawal symptoms. If an individual harms himself or others around him as a result of his behaviors, it is a problem. Overuse is maladaptive and causes significant impairment or distress to the user and/or his family. This might include difficulties at work or school, neglect of children and household duties, and physically dangerous behaviors.
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