Structures of Pulmonary System
Airways, Pulmonary circulation, chest wall, Lungs: Lobes (3 on right, 2 on left), Mediastinum
Upper airways: nasopharynx, oropharynx
Larynx-vocal cords: connect upper and lower airways
Lower airways: trachea, bronchi, terminal bronchioles
Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts
Alveoli: epithelial cells Type 1 & 2 alveolar cells
Type 1 alveolar cells
Provide structure, contain macrophages and can inflame
Type 2 alveolar cells
produce surfactant which lubricates and decreases surface tension
Mechanical movement of gas or air into and out of the lungs
Minute volume-normal is 1L/min. Ventilatory rate multiplied by volume of air per breath
Alveolar ventilaion-carbonic acid leaving lungs as CO2
Major muscles of inspiration
diaphragm- flat on inspiration
external intercostals-overused in COPD (barrel chest)
Accessory muscles of inspiration
accessory muscles of expiratory
When coughing they push air out
abdominal intercostal muscles
4 steps of gas trasnport
1. alveolar ventilation
2. diffusion of O2 from alveoli to capillary blood
3. Perfusion of systemic blood with oxygenated blood
4. diffusion of O2 from systemic into the tissues
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