CMS334K Exam 3

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How is eye gaze related to conflict in married couples?
satisfied married couples look at each other LESS than those who were dissatisfied
What is Mutual gaze?
Mutual Eye contact
What is gaze?
individual looking at another person
What are the 5 functions of gaze?
Regulating Communication
Monitoring Feedback
Reflecting Cognitive Activity
Express Emotions
Communication Nature of Relationship
How does gaze reflect the flow of communication?
Gaze may influence a person to respond, or suppress a response
How does gaze monitor feedback?
people may look at their partner to indicate the conclusions of thought and to check their partner's attentiveness and reactions
How is emotional contagion related to the monitoring feedback function?
our mirror neurons/perceptive ability helps us understand how we may be affecting a target
How does gaze reflect cognitive ability?
people tend to look away with an increase in cognition, avoid gaze on reflective and more difficult questions, and are more likely to avoid gaze when difficulty processing information.
(EX: answering FACTUAL questions)
When you avert your gaze to process and figure out what you want to say you are utilizing which function of gaze?
Reflecting Cognitive Acvitity
What emotions are we better at detecting through the eyes?
surprise, fear, disgust, anger, happiness, saddness
Intimacy and Dominance are related to which function of gaze?
Communicating the Nature of the Conversation
Visual Dominance Ration Equation
% of time gazing while speaking/ % of time gazing while listening
People with a higher dominance ratio are seen as what?
more dominant
People typically gaze more while _________, and gaze less while __________
Listening; Speaking
people gaze about ____ the time during the conversation
half
What is the intimacy equilibrium model?
intimacy = the amount of eye gaze, proximity, topic, and amount of smiling
What is the general rule about reciprocating and compensating nonverbal behavior?
we tend to reciprocate another's nonverbal behavior when the others; behavior is perceived by us as congruent with our expectations and preferences

When our partner's behavior is not congruent with our expectations and preferences, we are more likely to enact compensatory or offsetting behavior
compensation is used to balance what?
intimacy
compensation is usually done for positive or negative behaviors?
negative
reciprocating is usually done for positive or negative behaviors?
positive
How does distance influence gaze?
gazing and mutual gazing INCREASE as physical distance GROWS
For men, eye gaze increase when physical distance was increase just ___ feet
10
How does physical characteristics influence gaze?
gaze hinges on the nature of the disability or situational demands present during the interaction
non disabled persons will generally stare _____ bc they are either curious or looking for cues given off by the disabled
more
What Factors Affect Eye Gaze?
-Culture
-Sex
-Topic and Emotions
-Task
-Individual/personality characteristics
How do personal and personality characteristics influence gaze?
The less you gaze at a person the more negative characteristics you perceived to have
Lower self-esteem = less gaze
higher intelligence = more gaze
Social anxiety = less gaze
extraversion = more gaze
shyness = less gaze
What are the 4 general conclusions about gaze and personality
Socially dominate = more mutual gaze
Aggressively dominate = more looking around
Lower self-esteem = less gaze but gaze more when criticized by performance
Higher Self-esteem = more gaze
how does the topic and emotion affect eye gaze?
More eye contact when talking about something that you like
o Give less eye contact when talking about something sad or uncomfortable, also when talking about intimate things with someone you just started hanging out with
Asian cultures usually consider it respectful to what?...
to not look at the person in power
_______ are more comfortable with eye gaze and tend to give more mutual gaze
females
What are two types of tasks associated with factors that affect eye gaze?
competition and cooperation
Competition elicits what type of eye gaze?
short, frequent glances
more open/extroverted personality elicits more or less eye gaze?
more
Cooperation elicits what type of eye gaze?
Longer duration, and more mutual eye gaze
You can't make inferences on peoples personality based on Eye gaze. T/F
False - you can make interferences on personality based on eye gaze
Do gazing patterns ever elicit similar meanings in different cultures?
yes, when it comes to EXTREMES - too much eye gaze may signal anger, threat, or disrespect, while too little may signal dishonesty, inattention, or shyness
If you are shy you generally display more or less eye gaze
less
What is the general conclusion about what pupil dilation indicates?
pupils dilate for positive attitudes or interest, and constrict for negative ones
arousal up =
dilation
arousal down =
constriction
What factors affect pupil size?
lighting, drugs, mental effort & interest, physiological arousal
Age: Children have bigger pupils than adults
T/F: more negativity in the relationship elicits more eye gaze
TRUE
T/F: the less you gaze at a person the more negative characteristics you're perceived to have such as anxiety, evasive, submissive, indifferent, defensive, immature, etc.
TRUE
generally we judge people with bigger pupils as being what?
friendly, positive, more attractive, more genuine
Depressants usually cause pupils to ________, while antidepressants usually cause pupils to _______
constrict; dilate
T/F: children have larger absolute pupil sizes than adults
TRUE
What is civil inattention
ritual of initial glance and then gaze aversion - this acknowledges another's presences, but the aversion assures that the other is not an object of curiosity or attention
what are the general conclusions regarding civil attention in elevators?
the person who does not glance may be considered more polite, since he/she avoids exploration of space in order not to inconvenience the other passengers.
what are 2 key components of civil inattention
-quick glances,
-gaze aversion
How does our reliance on verbal content and nonverbal behavior change as we get older?
young children: mostly dependent on verbal content
older children: mix b/w verbal and nonverbal
adults: rely mostly on nonverbal behavior
What are the 6 vocal qualities discussed in class?
-Pitch
-Volume
-Rate
-Rhythm
-Articulation
-Glottis Control
Pitch refers to what?
Frequency
Volume referes to what?
Intensity
vibration of vocal cords, range, variation/monotone, & resonance are apart of what vocalic quality?
Pitch (Frequency)
Lower voice= _____ resonance
Higher voice= _____ resonance
more resonance
less resonance
Articulation refers to what?
Degree to what you are clear and concise
What is Glottis Control?
when we are more physiologically aroused our throat will tense up and we will get less air
Less air =
thinner voice that sounds more tense
More air =
less control (breathiness)
How is Rate (Tempo) measured
words per minute. Average = 125 to 190 WPM
Rhythm referes to what?
flow of your words
What are 2 general vocalic behaviors discussed in class?
-specific vocalic sounds
- vocal segregators
What are examples of specific vocalic sounds?
crying, laughing, groaning
What are examples of vocal segregators?
fillers: um, uh, like
What non-sounds were discussed in class?
-Pauses
-Speech latency
What are pauses?
silences within your own speech
What are speech latency
pauses between people
What were the extra-linguistic features discussed in class?
-rate, rhythm
-duration of speech
-dialect and accent
What is duration of speech?
how long you talk when you have the floor
What is dialect and accent?
emphasis of words and phonology
Are spectrograms useful in identifying speakers by voice?
They are not very reliable, bc voices are not like fingerprints and two may appear very similar
What qualities are associated with an attractive voice?
-moderate to high volume, more fluency, lower pitch for males, moderate pitch for females, more resonance, moderate to fast pace/rate,
-more articulation, less monotonous, less nasality
Halo effect in an attractive voice
extrovert, open, agreeable
T/F: The more fluent you are the more professional you look
TRUE
What are unpleasant voice qualities?
tense, nasal, monotone, thin, throaty
What characteristics can we typically judge from people's voice?
-Sex
-Age
-Race/Ethnicity
-Personality
-Emotions
T/F: Sex referes to what you were born with, while gender refers to what you identify with
TRUE
Which characteristic is the easiest to detect from voice and why?
Sex- because of pitch
Males or Females generally talk faster, vary in pitch, have fluency, and articulate more
Females
Pace and pitch usually get slower or faster as you get older
slower
Which characteristic is usually the hardest to determine based on voice?
Social Status
What is linguistic profiling?
judgments on race based on voice.
Which vocal characteristic is usually the most controversial?
Race/Ethnicity
T/F: based on the video clip you can usually predict if a person is black or white over the phone
TRUE
there were typically inconsistencies between judges and speakers perceptions of what?
speakers personality - however, there tends to be an agreement among judges regarding speakers personality
Extroversion voice traits
expressive pitch, louder, faster speaking rate, talk longer, shorter pauses
Type A personality voice traits
uneven rate; louder and more explosive voice; interrupt more; pronunciation
Dominant personality voice traits
louder; lower pitch; more interruptions
Masculine voice traits
less expressive pitch, louder, less enunciation/articulation
Dominant voice traits
louder, more interruptions, lower pitch
Can we accurately detect emotions of people from another culture?
Yes
Which voice qualities help us detect emotion?
Tempo and Pitch
Which emotions are easiest to detect with voice?
sadness, anger, happiness/joy
When we are feeling positive our voice might get _______, when we are feeling negative our voice might get ______
higher, lower
What 3 methods do researchers use to eliminate the content of speech to determine the effects of vocal qualities?
- Constant content
- Meaningless content
- Filtering and Splicing
What is constant content?
see if people can detect emotions from voice by having everyone read the same thing
What is meaning less content
have ppl count to 10
What is filtering/splicing
record voice, chop it, put it back together - words don't make sense who you don't get the content, but you get the vocal qualities
Does vocal variety increase audience comprehension?
Yes
What is the normal speaking rater? Up to how many words per minute can we comprehend?
125-190
What vocal qualities are related to persuasion?
fluent, non hesitatn, faster rate, less pauses, more pitch variation, louder voice
If faster speech was used that favored the listener's beliefs, persuasion went _____, whereas if faster speech was used that contradicted the listener's beliefs, persuasion went ___
down, up
How are filled and non-filled pauses perceived?
unfilled pauses: listener perceives speaker as anxious, angry, or contemptuous
filled pauses: anxious, bored
How can you influence speech latencies?
remaining silent or interrupting causes the other person to either speed up, match the nonresponse, or a combo of both
What is the overall conclusion about the meaning of silence?
Silence can mean virtually anything
What nonverbal behaviors are prevalent in greetings?
shaking hands, eyebrow flash, smiling, wave, fist bump
What are communication goals?
- Interaction management
- Impression management
- Communicating intimacy
- Dominance
- Persuasion
What are the 4 turn-taking behaviors in interaction management?
Turn yielding
Turn maintaining
Turn requesting
Turn denying
What two turn taking behaviors does the speaker posess?
Turn yielding and turn maintaining
What two turn taking behaviors does the listener posses?
Turn requesting and turn denying
What are nonverbal behaviors in interaction management
-interaction synchrony
-socialization
-regulate interaction
What nonverbal behaviors are used in turn yielding (speaker)?
rising or lowering pitch, decreased loudness, slowed tempo, drawl on last syllable, use of uteruses, extended unfilled pauses, body tension becomes relaxed, gestures come to restoring position, gazing at other
What nonverbal behaviors are used in turn maintaining (speaker)?
loudness increases, upright posture, gestures do not come to rest, increased number of filled pauses, lightly touching the listener, avert eye gaze
What nonverbal behaviors are used in turn requesting (listener)?
upraised finger, audible inhaling, straightening of posture, speeding up speaker w/ nods and utterance, stutter starts, simultaneous talk
What are nonverbal behaviors of turn denying (listener)?
relaxed listening posed maintained, maintained silence, avert gaze, encourage speaker to continue, repeat last words of speaker
What nonverbal behaviors do we use to initiate leave-taking?
decreased eye gaze, positioning body toward exit, supportiveness, looking at watch, hands on thighs, gathering possessions, accenting departure ritual with nonverbal sounds
Based on text, what flirting behaviors were observed in bars?
-early signaling was performed by women
-women signal subtle nonverbal signals to indicate a readiness for contact
- tossing one's head, grooming, stroking hair
What were the most frequent 3 eye gazes behaviors observed in bars?
- a room-encompassing eye gaze
- a short darting glance at a specific person
- a fixed eye gaze for at least 3 seconds at a specific other
What is impression management?
Trying to control the communication with behavioral cues to convey a certain impression.
Is impression management deceptive?
typically automatic - want to make a favorable impression
What is the functional perspective of impression management?
managing impression in order to accomplish a goal
What nonverbal behaviors indicate immediacy in initial/developing relationships?
forward lean, closer proximity, more eye gaze, more open arms and body, more direct body orientation, more touching, positive facial and vocal cues, postural relaxation
What are the 4 dimensions of nonverbal and impressions?
-credibility
-likability
-interpersonal attractiveness
-confidence/dominance
What are immediacy patterns of interaction in established relationships?
quantity is replaced over quality, more unique patterns that develop, less sharply dichotomous behavior, more ways to communicate the same message, more synchrony/smoothness of interaction
What do the theories discussed in "mutual influence" have in common?
we basically all have expectations going into conversation and violating these expectations can be good or bad and cause us to have different reactions
Equilibrium theory
interactants seek intimacy level comfortable for both
discrepancy-arousal theory
we have expectations about other person's expressive behavior
expectancy violations model
develop expectations for appropriate proximity in conversations - to violate someones expectations in a positive way to make a more favorable impression
interaction adaptation theory
each interactant enters convo with requirements, expectations, and desires
Communication accommodation theory (CAT)
matching others to make a more favorable impression
What is the main premise of the cognitive valence theory (CVT)?
to explain responses to increased intimacy by partner
What are the major components/schemas of the cognitive valence theory (CVT)?
- cultural appropriateness
- personal predispositions
- interpersonal valence/reward
- relational appropriateness
- situational appropriateness
- psychological or physical state
According to cognitive Valence theory (CVT) what leads to the possible positive and negative outcomes?
- if any of the 6 schemas are violated, behavior is considered negative and compensation occurs
- if none of the 6 schemas are violated, behavior is considered positive and reciprocation occurs
Nonverbal behaviors of credibility
Faster rate, fluency, short unfilled pauses, eye contact, smiling, meet expectations in clothing, no nervous habits, consistency in verbal and nonverbal behavior
Nonverbal behaviors of likability
Expressive voice, forward lean, closer proximity, eye contact, smiling
Nonverbal behaviors of interpersonal attractiveness
Expressive voice, forward lean, close proximity, smiling, meet expectations in clothing
Nonverbal behaviors of confidence/dominance
Greater volume, short unfilled pauses, relaxed voices, direct body orientation, no nervous habits
What nonverbal behaviors typically help creating a favorable impression?
eye contact, smiling, consistency in verbal and nonverbal, forward lean, expressive voice, close proximity, matching behaviors, mirroring, mimicking, matching, meshing
What nonverbal behaviors do we stereotypically thing a dominant person exhibits?
+ (more) : gaze, facial expressiveness, gestures, open posture, touch, volume, interruptions, rate, and vocal relaxations

- (less) : smiling, interpersonal distance, filled pauses
What nonverbal behaviors do people in dominant positions actually exhibit?
More: facial expressiveness, open posture, volume, interruptions, and vocal relaxation

Less: interpersonal distance, and filled pauses

No effect: gaze, smiling, gestures, rate
In a formal setting, the more ________ person initiates touch (handshake)
submissive
In and informal setting, the more ________ person initiates touch
dominant
What is Immediacy?
Behaviors that indicate physical and psychological closeness, approachability, interest, responsiveness, and interpersonal warmth
What nonverbal behaviors increase persuasiveness?
closer proxemics, attractive, appropriate dress, light touch, increased gaze, smiling, louder, pleasant voice, short silent pauses, relatively faster rate
T/F: men wil touch more in courtship and women will touch more in marriage
TRUE
______ replaces ______ for Immediacy in established relationships
quantity, quality
we tend to ________________ when behavior violates expectations and preferences
compensate
we tend to ________________ when behavior is generally consistent with our expectations and preferences
reciprocate
compensation and reciprocation are conclusions of what theory?
Cognitive Valence Theory
What 2 major conclusions were discussed in relation to nonverbal behavior and persuasion?
- NVs have at least as strong of an impact on persuasion and verbal
- positive expectancy violations produce more persuasion than conformity to expectations
What NV behaviors were exhibited by interviewees who were accepted of the position?
- more direct eye contact, smiling, and shaking/nodding of head
- these actions act as positive reinforcers
How do the behaviors of liars differ from truth tellers?
liars: use less detail and are less plausible, more tense, more neg. impression, less forthcoming, fewer spontaneous corrections and less likely to admit they can't remember something
How accurate are we at detecting lies?
ppl are only accurate about 50-60% of the time
What are 2 factors of dominance?
status and power
What is power?
the ability to influence others and resist their influence on us
What is Status?
socially valued role or position
what is dominance?
trying to attain power
T/F: The visual cues convey dominance more than the voice
FALSE - the voice conveys dominance more than the visual cues
In general, people with higher status take the lead
TRUE
What does social information processing theory suggest?
we don't have all nonverbal channels online but we do have certain cues to adapt and use them
What are the different kinds of cues for computer mediated communication?
- social information processing
- hyperpersonal perspective
Social information processing: Translation of cues
adapting to the cues we have available to us
What is hyperpersonal perspective
more control over self-presentation, leads to idealized images, may feel closer to the person
What are the adaptations of CMC?
emoticons/emojis, symbols, and abbreviations
What personality characteristics and we detect posted on social networking sites
extraversion and narcissism
Willingness to initiate friendship is stronger when there is a photo:
photo: more attractive
no photo: unattractive
"popular" users (300 vs. 100 friends) are judged to be what?
more socially and physically attractive and extraverted
T/F: having a high number of friends on social sites increases your desireability
FALSE - high # of friends does not affect your desirability
What impressions are made based off of pictures of friends?
if your friends are more attractive, you are seen as more attractive
What impression are made based off of friends' statements
friends positive comments about you increase your social and task attractiveness
friends statements about owners attractiveness negates their own statements
What is the relation between proxemics and eye contact in the virtual world?
- the closer the avatars got, the less eye gaze there would be
-However, the more two avatars were talking, the more likely they were to be looking at each other
What are the different explanations for sex differences?
- Power hypotheses: equate sex with power
- Social Cultural Approach: sexes have different cultures
-Social Role Theory: role oriented>sex oriented
Masculinity
instrumentation (task oriented)
Femininity
expressiveness (relationship oriented)
Androgyny
both masculinity and femininity
Power Hypothesis
if you are a male you tend to have more power than if you are a female
Social Cultural Approach
males and females grow up in different cultures
- males tend to be more competitive
- females try to create more harmony
In general, are sex differences large?
no - more WITHIN group but less BETWEEN group
Females are typically better than males at what different nonverbal channels?
- encoding and decoding
- females are more influenced by dress and appearance
- females maintain smaller distances and are approached more closely
- females give, receive, and reciprocate more touch
- females are more expression with facial expressions and smile more
- females gaze: fréquence, duration, reciprocity, listening and speaking
- females have higher pitch, vocal variety, use more pronunciation,
Males are typically better at what nonverbal channels
-Males use more expansive and relaxed posture
- Males us more expanse gesturing, females use more expressive gesturing
- Males use higher volume, and have higher resonance
How does the visual dominance ratio vary by sex and status/expertise?
higher status dominance: gaze more while speaking and less while listening
regardless of gender, the person with more ________ will have a higher VDR
expertise
how does sex effect persuasiveness?
- females have to credible and liked
- males just have to be credible
What is the common fallacy regarding the effects of advertising?
ppl engage in faulty ways of thinking about the world while at the same time recognizing "other people" make these errors all the time
- smokers say it won't hurt them
what subtle message do we get form advertising that makes it so powerful?
viewer is inadequate
which emotional expression may be the biggest turnoff for voters?
fear and uncertainty
what nonverbal are associated with emotional expression to turn off voters
looking down
hesitating
making rapid, jerky movements
seeming to freeze
what are the effects when students perceive their teachers exhibiting immediacy behaviors?
like the teacher and course, teacher- student interaction, learn more, determined to stay in college
what general roles do nonverbal behaviors play in the therapeutic setting?
more satisfaction when doctors gaze, lean forward, nod, gesture, establish closer interpersonal distances, and have warm/enthusiastic voice qualities
What are cultural differences associated with greeting?
US: handshake
Japan: bow
India or Middle eastern cultures: namaste
what are cultural differences associated with touch?
-less touch in places like china and US
-more touch in Latin American Cultures
What are cultural differences associated with eye contact?
western: respectful to have eye contact
native americans avid eye contact
What are cultural differences associated with eating?
- different utensils in different cultures
-continental: fork in left had, knife in right, hands always above table
- middle eastern: eat food with right hand not left
what are culture differences associated with lines?
in the US, we definitely use lines,
high contact cultures might not have lines
What examples did Axtell use to show cultural differences regarding nonverbal behaviors?
-greeting: handshake, namaste, hug, bow
-beckoning: curling finger in the US is bad in Yugoslavia, Malaysia
-insulting: different versions of flipping someone off, middle finger vs. forearm jerk
-touching: holding hands in middle east okay, here its not
-OK sign: rude in Germany and Brazil
-V for Victory: if it's backwards, you're saying "up yours"
-vertical horns: cuckolded
How many words per minute can we usually comprehend
200-275
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