APHG Unit 6, part 2: Industrialization [2016 - 2017], APHG Unit 6, part 1: Development [2016 - 2017]


Terms in this set (...)

acid rain
A by-product of air pollution which forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere, then return to Earth as precipitation or fog
The clustering of industries in one area, supporting each other by sharing talents, services, and facilities
air pollution
The concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air
bid-rent theory
It describes the prices that manufacturers are willing to pay for land at different distances from the city center in order to achieve a certain level of profits
break-of-bulk point
A location where the transfer of cargo is possible from one mode of transportation to another
bulk-gaining industries
Industries in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than its inputs
bulk-reducing industries
Industries in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
comparative advantage
One group's ability to carry out a particular economic activity more efficiently than another group
A condition that exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other's demands
conglomerate corporations
Companies comprised of many smaller firms that support the overall industry
A shipping method in which a large amount of material, such as merchandise, is packaged into large standardized boxes
cottage industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in factories, commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution
cumulative causation
The process by which economic activity leading to prosperity, thus increasing economic development, tends to concentrate in an area with an initial advantage, while simultaneously draining financial investment and skilled labor from other areas
The exodus of businesses from a crowded area, usually in response to technological advances and/or an increase in labor and transportation costs due to congestion and competition
The process by which companies in more developed countries move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the more developed areas to switch to a service-based economy (and to work through a period of high unemployment)
economies of scale
A proportionate saving in costs gained by an increased level of production
A port, city, or other center to which imported and exported goods are brought for collection and distribution
fixed costs
Costs that do not change directly with the amount of production
The ability of industrial firms to be neither resource-oriented nor market-oriented; The transportation of both resources and finished products are a negligible part of total costs
Fordist production
A form of mass production, featuring assembly-line production of standardized components, in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
friction of distance
The increase in time and cost that usually accompanies an increase in distance
global warming
A theory that the Earth is gradually heating as a result of an enhanced greenhouse effect in the Earth's atmosphere
greenhouse effect
The anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels through various human activities) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface
growth pole
A specific point within a region around which economic development occurs; Development is not uniform over the entire region
Hotelling, Harold
An American economist who introduced the theory of locational interdependence
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology and specialization that transformed the process of manufacturing goods in late-eighteenth-century Europe
Necessary services that support economic activities, such as energy, communications, and transportation networks
intermodal connections
Places where two or more methods of transportation meet (including air, road, rail, barge, and ship)
international division of labor
A flexible system of industrialization in which some of the components of goods are made in different places around the globe and then brought together as needed to meet consumer demand
just-in-time delivery
The shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed
labor-intensive industries
An industry for which the costs of workers comprise a high percentage of total expenses
least cost theory
A theory developed by German economic geographer Alfred Weber to explain the location of secondary/market-oriented industries as determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: transportation, labor, and agglomeration
location theory
A theory to explain the locational pattern of economic activities by identifying factors that influence this pattern, such as access to natural resources, variable costs, friction of distance, distance decay, etc.
locational interdependence
A theory introduced by American economist Harold Hotelling to explain the influence on a firm's locational decision by locations chosen by its competitors; Concerned more with variable revenue analysis rather than a reliance on variable costs
A factory built by an American company in Mexico near the U.S./Mexico border to take advantage of the much lower labor costs
new international division of labor
The transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
A treaty signed in 1995 by Mexico, the United States, and Canada, which eliminated barriers (including most tariffs) to free trade among the three countries
A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers, including offshore locations
ozone depletion
The thinning of a gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in Earth's stratosphere, due in part to an increased release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) through various human activities
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers
post-Fordist production
The adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks; Goods are not mass produced, as production is dispersed and accelerated around the globe by multinational corporations
primary industrial regions
Areas on Earth with the largest agglomeration of industry; Each area includes a core of industrial activities with other clusters some distance away
primary/resource-oriented industry
Industry that develops around the location of raw materials
A consistent cold temperature used to preserve perishable items during transportation and storage; Allows for longer travel distances in trade and availability to distant markets, thus increasing potential demand
right-to-work law
Prevents a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join the union as a condition of employment
Rust Belt
A region in the northeastern United States that was once characterized by industry; Now so-called because of the heavy deindustrialization of the area
secondary industrial regions
Areas on Earth where agglomeration of industry is somewhat less, but still significant
secondary/market-oriented industry
Industry that is less dependent on resource location, due to improvements in transportation
single-market manufacturers
Specialized manufacturers with only one or two customers, and whose optimal location is often in close proximity to its customers
site factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land, labor, and capital
situation factors
Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
spatial fix
The movement of production from one site to another based on the place-based cost advantages of the new site
substitution principle
The suggestion that business owners can juggle expenses, as long as labor, land rents, transportation, and other costs don't all go up at one time
Sun Belt
The South and Southwest regions of the United States to which North American manufacturing has dispersed from the Northeast region in recent decades
Centers or nodes of high-technology research and activity around which a high-technology corridor of agglomeration is sometimes established
A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
trading blocs
Conglomerations of trade among countries, especially within a geographic region
multi-national/transnational corporations
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
variable costs
Costs that change directly with the amount of production
variable revenue analysis
A firm's ability to capture a market that will earn it more customers and money than its competitors
vertical integration
An approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process
Weber, Alfred
A German economic geographer who developed the least cost theory
modernization model
A model of economic development, most closely associated with the work of economist W.W. Rostow, that maintains all countries go through five interrelated stages of development, which culminate in an economic state of self-sustained economic growth and high levels of mass consumption; Sometimes referred to as "modernization theory" or the "stages of growth model"
capitalist world economy
A global economic system that is based in high-income nations with market economies
compressed modernity
Rapid economic and political change that transforms a country into a staple nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions
three-tier structure
The division of the world into the core, the periphery, and the semi-periphery as a means to help explain the interconnections between places in the global economy
world systems theory
Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated by his three-tier structure, proposing that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world; Sometimes referred to as the "core-periphery model"
The quantity of something that consumers are willing and able to buy
dependency theory
Based on idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop
more developed country (MDC)
A country that has experienced industrialization and progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
less developed country (LDC)
A developing country that has not experienced industrialization and is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
newly-industrializing country (NIC)
A developing country that has relatively recently introduced industrialization and whose economy has grown at a rapid pace
A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
economic geography
A discipline that studies the impact of economic activities on the landscape and investigates reasons behind the locations of economic activities
energy consumption
The amount of fuel substances needed and used by countries to perform economic activities
export-oriented industrialization
A strategy that seeks to directly integrate the country's economy into the global economy by concentrating on economic production that can find a place in international markets
fair trade
An alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically-run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organization, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards
female labor force participation rate
The percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside the home
foreign direct investment (FDI)
Financial support provided by a foreign company in the economy of another country
fossil fuel
An energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Four Asian Tigers/Four Asian Dragons
Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore; Countries whose economies started to boom in the 1960s after adopting an international trade alternative, as well as export-oriented industrialization;
Gender Inequality Index (GII)
A combination of multiple measures, including empowerment, labor, and reproductive health, established by the United Nations in order to determine a country's imbalance in the status of men and women
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normally one year)
Gross National Income (GNI)
The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that enters and leaves the country
Human Development Index (HDI)
An indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the United Nations, that is based on income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Inequality-Adjusted HDI (IHDI)
Modification of the Human Development Index to account for inequality within a country
literacy rate
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write
maternal mortality ratio
The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births
Provision of small loans and other financial services to individuals and small businesses in developing countries
Millennium Development Goals
Eight international objectives for development that all members of the United Nations have agreed to achieve by 2015
The current reinforcement of the colonial order, such as trade, investment, and political relations
nonrenewable energy
A source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted
post-industrial societies
Countries where most people are no longer employed in industry
potential reserve
The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
proven reserve
The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
purchasing power parity (PPP)
The amount of money needed in one country to purchase the same goods and services in another country; The figure adjusts income figures to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods
core countries
Countries in the three-tier structure that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, more technology, and therefore generate more wealth in the world economy
periphery countries
Countries in the three-tier structure that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, less technology, and therefore generate less wealth in the world economy
Rostow, W. W.
An American economist who advocated for the international trade approach to development by creating the modernization model
self-sufficiency model
To promote development, countries encourage domestic production of goods, discourage foreign ownership of businesses and resources, and protect their businesses from international competition
semi-periphery countries
Countries in the three-tier structure that incorporate moderate levels of education, salaries, and technology, therefore generating a moderate amount of wealth in the world economy; Although they are exploited by wealthier countries, they in turn exploit poorer countries
The quantity of something that producers have available for sale
structural adjustment program
Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens for more for services
technology gap
The difference in technologies used and/or developed in two countries where one is more advanced than the other; Innovating countries enjoy monopolies on new goods until other countries learn to produce these goods for themselves through the use of technology
technology transfer
The diffusion of new technology from an originator to a secondary user, especially from developed to less developed countries in an attempt to boost their economies
Third World
A Cold War term to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist bloc; It is normally seen to include many developing countries with colonial pasts in Africa, Latin America, Oceania and Asia
uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between geographical locations at various scales as a result of the globalization of the economy
value added
The gross worth of a product minus the costs of raw materials and energy
Wallerstein, Immanuel
An American social scientist who created the world systems theory based on a three-tier structure
World Trade Organization
An organization for establishing international commerce, negotiate agreements, settle disputes, and sets regulations for trade between member countries
social development
Advancements made in literacy rates, access to formal education, good health care, etc.
per capita
For each person, or in relation to people taken individually; In Latin, it means "by head"
formal economy
The legal economy that is taxed and monitored by a government and is included in a government's Gross National Income (GNI)
informal economy
Economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government and is not included in a government's Gross National Income (GNI)
structuralist theory
A general term for a model of economic development that treats economic disparities among countries or regions as the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)
Specific area(s) within a country (i.e. China) in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign businesses and investment