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Unit 5: Cell Growth and Reproduction Study Guide
Terms in this set (66)
Process in which bacteria divide
Condensed form of chromosomes
Replication of DNA during interphase
Process in which 2 daughter cells are produced; identical to parent cell (4 stages)
1st phase of interphase
Stage in interphase where cell prepares to divide
Log shaped structures that appear next to the nucleus to help pull chromosomes apart
One of two identical arms that make up a chromosome
Constricted area in the middle of a chromosome; holds chromatids together
Framework of microtubules that attach to chromosomes and guide them to the poles
Region where centrioles are located that help organize the spindle
G1, S, G2
3 stages of the cell cycle
Chromatin condenses & coils into chromosomes becoming visible; nucleus disappears and centrioles migrate
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Sister chromatids begin to pull apart
Chromosomes are at opposite sides of the cell; Nucleus reforms and cell begins to pinch inwards
Largest stage in mitosis?
Division of cytoplasm
Reduction division that produces haploid gametes
Production of egg cells
When does crossing-over occur?
During Prophase 1 when homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their genes
What is the purpose of crossing-over?
Increase genetic diversity
Chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosomes from the opposite-sex parent
Cell containing both sets of homologous chromosomes
Cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
Structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
Process where homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Process where single parent reproduces by itself
Process where cells from 2 different parents unite to produce first cell of a new organism
What 2 things do Mendel's principles of genetics require?
-Each organism must inherit a single copy of every gene from both its parents
-When an organism produces its own gametes, those 2 sets of genes must be separated from each other
Diploid representation symbol
A chimpanzee has 30 chromosomes. This is the diploid number (2N). What's the chimps haploid number?
Divided from somatic (body) cells
Divided from reproductive (sex) cells
2 daughter cells
4 Daughter cells
All daughter cells have 46 chromosones
All daughter cells have 23 chromosomes
1 round of division
2 rounds of division
In human cells, 2N=46. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in a sperm cell?
In human cells, 2N=46. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in an egg cell?
Involved in growth/repair
DNA replication occurs during interphase
DNA replication occurs once before meiosis 1
Components of DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid, deoxyribose sugar, and double stranded
Components of Nucleotide
5-carbon sugar, Phosphate group, and nitrogen base
Consisted of 2 rings (G,A)
Consists of 1 ring (T,C)
Guanine pairs with...
Adenine pairs with...
%C = G% and %T = %A
When does the cell grow and synthesize a copy of its DNA?
Chromosomes become visible
What are functions of mitosis in humans?
Replace lost of damage cells, multiply body cells, and repair wounds
What happens to the cell's ratio of surface area to volumes as the cell's volume increases increases more rapidly than the surface area?
The ratio decreases
What phase of mitosis occurs at the same time as cytokinesis?
Cells spend most of their time in the ________ phase of interphase.
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