# Hypertension, heart disease, and stroke

Term
1 / 31
Objectives
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (31)
-consists of the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins).
• The heart is a four-chambered pump.
- Blood enters the left atrium from the lungs,
- is pumped out of the left ventricle through the aorta to the arteries where it goes to the entire body.
- The capillaries take blood to the tissue
- veins return blood to the heart.
- Blood enters the right ventricle through the right atrium
- and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
- After receiving oxygen in the lungs, the blood returns to the left atrium.
• We usually use two numbers to measure blood pressure (for example 120/80)
• The first number is the systolic blood pressure. This is the maximum pressure generated in your arteries by contraction of the heart.
• The second number is the diastolic blood pressure. This is the minimum pressure, or the pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes.
Use a mercury sphygmomanometer (tall column of mercury measures air pressure in a rubber bladder)
• Calibrated in millimeters, therefore the blood pressure numbers are literally mm of Hg
• Cuff is placed over upper arm
• Cuff is inflated
• The pressure of the cuff cuts off the blood supply.
• As you let out the air, the pressure reduces and at some point, the blood starts to make a sound as it squeezes through
underneath the cuff. These are called the Korotkoff sounds
• You watch the mercury fall, and note the pressure when you hear the first sound. This is the systolic blood pressure
• Then, you listen to the sounds and note what the pressure was when you heard the last sound. This is the diastolic blood pressure.
• Sometimes the arteries to the heart become blocked altogether. When this happens temporarily, it is referred to as ischemia.
• Prolonged ischemia can cause part of the heart muscle to die. This is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI).
• MI is the death of heart tissue caused by lack of oxygen and nutrients resulting from a blocked coronary artery.
• Usually when someone is said to have a heart attack, they have had an MI.