Hypertension, heart disease, and stroke

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-consists of the heart, the blood, and the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries, and veins).
• The heart is a four-chambered pump.
- Blood enters the left atrium from the lungs,
- is pumped out of the left ventricle through the aorta to the arteries where it goes to the entire body.
- The capillaries take blood to the tissue
- veins return blood to the heart.
- Blood enters the right ventricle through the right atrium
- and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
- After receiving oxygen in the lungs, the blood returns to the left atrium.
• We usually use two numbers to measure blood pressure (for example 120/80)
• The first number is the systolic blood pressure. This is the maximum pressure generated in your arteries by contraction of the heart.
• The second number is the diastolic blood pressure. This is the minimum pressure, or the pressure in the arteries when the heart relaxes.
Use a mercury sphygmomanometer (tall column of mercury measures air pressure in a rubber bladder)
• Calibrated in millimeters, therefore the blood pressure numbers are literally mm of Hg
• Cuff is placed over upper arm
• Cuff is inflated
• The pressure of the cuff cuts off the blood supply.
• As you let out the air, the pressure reduces and at some point, the blood starts to make a sound as it squeezes through
underneath the cuff. These are called the Korotkoff sounds
• You watch the mercury fall, and note the pressure when you hear the first sound. This is the systolic blood pressure
• Then, you listen to the sounds and note what the pressure was when you heard the last sound. This is the diastolic blood pressure.
• Sometimes the arteries to the heart become blocked altogether. When this happens temporarily, it is referred to as ischemia.
• Prolonged ischemia can cause part of the heart muscle to die. This is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI).
• MI is the death of heart tissue caused by lack of oxygen and nutrients resulting from a blocked coronary artery.
• Usually when someone is said to have a heart attack, they have had an MI.
Heart disease• Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of heart disease. • Atherosclerosis is the build up of deposits on the walls of the arteries. • These buildups are the accumulation of cholesterol, fat, fibrin (clotting factor in the blood), cellular tissues, scar tissue, and calcium. • These deposits are called plaques. • Plaques reduce the flow of blood and if they become severe enough, can totally block the flow of blood (leading to an MI) • Plaques also harden the walls of the arteries and reduce their elasticity. They become less able to expand and contractA distinction• Atherosclerosis is the build up of plaques in the arteries • Arteriosclerosis is any impairment of blood supply or reduction of arterial elasticity. • If your arteries lack elasticity, they may not be able to respond to peak work loads such as when you exercise.Blood Cholesterol• Cholesterol is a waxy,fat-like substance(lipid) - Cholesterol is made in the liver, or taken in through diet • Transported through bloodstream by a family of molecules called lipoproteins (a combination of fat and protein) • Cholesterol is wrapped in different packages - LDL = low density lipoprotein - sometimes called bad - HDL = high density lipoprotein - sometimes called good cholesterol • Cholesterol'sfunction - Building cell membranes - Building block for stress and sex hormones - Used by liver to create bile acids for digestionCholesterol numbersWhy care?C-Reactive ProteinHomocysteineStroke - the other cardiovascular diseaseIschemic StrokeHemorrhagic StrokeStroke Warning SignsBehavioral Risk FactorsUnchangeable risk factorsCan personality affect your risk?Other potential risk factorsAspirinPreventionIs it worth the effort?Primary Prevention of heart diseaseSecondary Prevention of heart diseaseTertiary Prevention