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49 terms

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the primary bronchi is large rin diameter
Right
which of the primary bronchi are more horizontal
Left
which of the primary bronchi is the most common site for lodging of a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways
Right
Smallest conducting respiratory passageways
Bronchiolies
separates the oral and nasal cavities
Palate
Major nerve stimulating the diaphragm
Phrenic nerve
food passageway posterior to the trachea
esophagus
closes off the larynx during swallowing
epiglottis
windpipe
trachea
actual site of gas exchange
alveoli
pleural layer covering the thorax walls
parietal pleura
pleural layer covering the lungs
visceral pleura
lumen of the larynx
glottis
fleshly lobes in the nasal cavity which increase its surface area
conchae
with the exception of the stroma in the lungs which is _____________ ______________
elastic connective
the bulk of the alveolar walls are made up of squamous epithelial cells which are well suited for their __________ ____________ function
gas exchange
Much less numerous cuboidal cells produce a fluid that coats the air exposed surface of alveolus and contains a lipid based molecule called ________________ that functions to __________ _____________ of the alveolar fluid
surfactant
surface tension
in healthy lungs it is always lower than atmosphere pressure
intrapleural pressure
pressure of air outside body
atmospheric pressure
as it decreases air flows into passageways of the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure
as it increases over atmospheric pressure air flows out of the lungs
intrapulmonary pressure
if this pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure the lungs collapse
intrapleural pressure
rises well over atmospheric pressure during a forceful cough
intrapulmonary pressure
Diaphragm is contracted, moved down
INT VOL INC
INT PRESSURE DEC
SIZE OF LUNGS INC
DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW= INTO LUNG
Diaphragm is relaxed, moves superiorly
INT VOL DEC
INT PRESSURE INC
SIZE OF LUNGS DEC
DIRECTION OF AIR FLOW= OUT OF THE LUNG
Period of breathing when the air enters the lungs
inspiration
exchange of gases between the systemic capillary blood and body cells
internal respiration
alternate flushing of air into and out of the lungs
expiration
exchange of gases between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood
external respiration
provide two examples of muscles that cause abdominal pressure to rise
INT OBL
RECT ABD
provide an example of muscles that depress the rib cage
LAT DORSI
INT INTERCOSTALS
sudden inspiration resulting from spasms of the diaphragm
hiccup
a deep breath is taken the glottis is closed and air is forced out o fth elungs against the glottis clears the lower respiratory passageways
coughing
a deep breath is taken the glottis is closed and air is forced out of the lungs against the glottis just described but clears the upper respiratory passageways
sneezing
increases ventilation of the lungs may be initiated by a need to increase oxygen levels in the blood
yawning
smooth out the basic rhythm of breathing set by the medulla
Pons centers
respiratory control center in the medulla
inspiratory center
respond to overinflation of the lungs
stretch receptors in th elungs
nerves that carry activating impulses to the muscles of inspiration
intercostal and phrenic
lack or cessation of breathing
apnea
normal breathing in terms of rate and depth
eupnea
labored breathing or air hunger
dyspnea
chronic oxygen deficiency
hypoxia
condition characterised by increased mucus production which clogs respiratpry passageways and promotes coughing
chronic bronchitis
condition chracterised by fibrosis of the lungs and an increase in size of the alveolar chambers
emphysema
respiratory passageways narrowed by bronchiolar spasms
asthma
together called COPD
chronic bronchitis and emphysema
incidence strongly associated with cigarette smoking outlook is poor
lung cancer
infection spread by airborne bacteria a recent alarming increase in drug users and AID's victims
tuberculosis