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Chapters 7 & 8
Terms in this set (32)
1. List six applications of the importance of gas densities, including how density affects the application. (pg 152)
dynamite, popcorn popping, airbags, weather balloons, blimps, water vapor (daniel proposed after wendy became wasted)
2. Which is more important with respect to hypertension (high blood pressure), a person's sodium intake, or the ratio of sodium to potassium? (pg 163)
the ratio of sodium to potassium
3. Which should be the lower amount, sodium or potassium? (pg 163)
4. What is the ideal sodium-to-potassium ratio? (pg 163)
5. What dietary measures can be taken to reduce hypertension? (pg 163)
increasing potassium and lowering soldium
6. What advantages do controlled-release drugs have over using an ordinary-release medication? (pg 189)
the period of the affectivenss of the drug can be extended
7. How does coating thickness affect the controlled-release process? (pg 189)
particles with a thinner coat dissolve more quickly and those with a thicker coat dissolve more slowly. determines how many particles are released over a longer period of time
8. What two problems can occur when a drug taken by mouth reaches the stomach? (pg 189)
1. the drug might damage the lining of the stomach 2. drug may be rendered inactive because of the gastric acid present in the stomach
9. Where in the body does a drug with an acid-resistive coating dissolve? (pg 189)
the small intestine
What are the 2 nursing applications of time-release drugs
1. used in pill tablets to dissolve a drug over time 2. attempts to maintain drug levels to avoid dangerous peaks in drug concentration
properties of the states of matter
SOLID: 1. definite shape and volume 2. high density 3. low compressability 4. low thermal expansion LIQUID: 1. definite volume and indefinite shape 2. high density 3. low compressability 4. low thermal expansion GAS: 1. indefinite shape and volume 2. low density 3. high compressability 4. moderate thermal expansion
state the principles of the kinetic molecular theory of matter
1. matter is made up of very small particles. each particle has its own size and the sizes do not change. 2. particles always move, move randomly and have kinetic energy 3. particles attract and repel each other which gives them potential energy 4. the higher the temperature the faster the particles move and the more kinetic energy they have 5. when particles move they do so elastically
how does the KMT explain particle spacing, compressability, and density trends among solids, liquids and gases
1. particle spacing - varies as attractive force varies; greater attraction, the closer the particle's 2. compressability - particles can be compressed closer together if there is empty space between them because the particle sizes don't change 3. density trend is usually solid > liquid > gas; the higher the density, the closer the particles are together
why does particle spacing vary among solids, liquids and gases?
it's based on how strongly or weakly the particles attract each other
what volume does a substance occupy?
volume of particles + volume of empty space
what determines a substance's temperature?
the average velocity of the particles; the higher the temperature, the faster the molecules move
how does a substance exert a pressure? what is pressure?
higher particle velocity, the higher force of the collision. the larger volume of the container, the larger area of collisions. Pressure = force/area a substance exerts a pressure by
how do we measure air pressure?
list the applications of each of the 3 gas laws
Charles: 1. why an object must be at room temperature when weighed on a balance Boyle's: 1. function of filling a diaphragm when breathing 2. filling a syringe Dalton's: 1. explains why some people have trouble with breathing at high altitudes
a liquid is in a closed container. when will the system reach equilibrium?
when the rate of evaporation and condensation are the same
why are there high altitude cooking directions? (HOW IS DIS BS RELEVANT?)
the pressure is lower at high altitudes, so less water pressure of water is needed to equal the lower air pressure therefore water boils at a lower temperature so the food is cooked differently
how does an autoclave work? (how is this chemistry tell me divis SHOW ME HOW THIS WILL HELP ME IN NURSING SCHOOL I DARE YOU)
the higher air pressure requires a higher vapor pressure of water for boiling so the temperature must be higher. the higher temperature sterilizes the scientific instruments inside
make a chart of the 3 intermolecular forces that are present in solids and liquids with polarity and nonpolarity
what two component types are in solutions and how can you tell which chemical is which type?
solutions have a solvent (present in a large amount) and one or more solutes (present in smaller amount)
which of the solution terms applies to dissolving 1.94 g of lead(II) bromide in 100 g of 50 celcius water?
during solution formation, what attractions must be overcome? what attractions form?
overcome: solute to solute and solvent to solvent and it must form: solute to solvent
how can we determine whether a nonpolar liquid will dissolve in a particular solvent?
a nonpolar liquid is covalent so "like dissolves in like"
how can we determine whether an ionic solid will dissolve in water?
explain why fat soluble vitamins might not need to be ingested daily while water soluble vitamins need to be ingested daily
1. fat soluble vitamins: any excess amounts of these vitamins can be stored in the body for later use 2. water soluble vitamins: any excess amount of these vitamins are removed from the body via excretion
what are the similarities and differences among solutions, colloids and suspensions?
in solutions and colloids you cannot see the particles but in suspensions you can see the particles
explain the observation that the freezing point of a solution is lower than the freezing point of a solvent? use diagram
because of all of the excess particles that are in a solution, it is difficult since they are in the way and they can't evaporate thus requiring a lower temperature. because it's a pure solvent and there aren't any particles in it so there's nothing in it's way so it freezes more easily.
describe hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic in medicine
HYPERTONIC: (laxative) water moves from tissues into stool which becomes more soft/liquidy HYPOTONIC: water moves from blood into surrounding tissues so it decreases the water in the blood (decreased blood pressure) ISOTONIC: IV fluids, contact lens storage (all fluids are administered to the body)
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