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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (52)
Know what the authors consider the two sides of the 'fundamental tension in American journalism"
Know the largest US cable-television operator in the US
Know why the invention of the radio required federal regulation
needed some sort of regulation to deal with all the battles over who got to use what frequency, etc.
Know the basic differences between market models and public sphere models in media
a)How audiences are addressed
c)How success is measured
Market Models argue that having the govt. in control of media could threaten independence and that the govt. had no business interfering with or depriving individual entrepreneurs from creating a vibrant broadcasting industry.
b)generate profits for owners and stockholders
Public Sphere: (in Britian) argued that leaving mass communication (at least broadcasting) to market forces would not serve the public interest at all. But if the govt. owned it, it could assure that it lived up to its public interest obligations.
a) as citizens
b) promote active citizenship via information, education, and social integration
c) serving the public interest
Know what company produces the news in England
Know the text's definition of "the media"
All the entities sending and receiving messages on a mass scale-the mass media. Includes tv, radio, magazines, newspapers, websites, movies, blogs, books, etc.
Know the # of American corporations that own majority of US media outlets?
Know what this situation is called?
6, concentration of ownership
Know what media owners think is the advantage of #8
dealing with relatively small number of competitors. easier to get a bigger piece of the pie.
Know what consumers think is the disadvantage of #8
fewer competitors means there's little reason for companies to be innovative or keep prices low
Know definitions of horizontal and vertical integration in media
Horizontal-situation when a single large media corporation owns a number of different kinds of media products or outlets.
Vertical-situation when a media corporation owns companies involved in different phases of the media production process-creating media products, distributing them, showing them, etc.
A media corp can be both horizontally and vertically integrated.
Know definition of "economies of scale"
The cost advantages that a business obtains due to expansion
Know what prevents variety in news content
Sometimes people don't want to risk trying something new and untested and then not having enough people watch or read it and waisting money
Know the 1st news program to make money
Know the 2 components of the dual-product model
Content: news, entertainment etc.
Attention of the audience reading, viewing, or otherwise interacting with that content
Know how advertisers can influence news contact
Owners are inclined to be most responsive to the demands of advertisers who help them meet those demands of shareholders. They select their news based on what the advertisers want the viewers to see and read.
From sidebar on 'public service news": Know what is considered "most precious asset" of public news
The integrity of our reporting. Its the foundation that supports public trust
Know why some Americans wanted to cut federal funding for public broadcasting in 2011
The market can do it for less money
What factor is now used to evaluate many news managers' work performances
How much money was being made off of the stories
How much time news managers now spend on business responsibilities?
At least one third of their time
How emerging media models at least initially define success
Goal is to make a name and create a brand and name with followers
Know a complication of measuring website traffic when determining a story's success
Just because it is the most popular and visited doesn't mean its the most news oriented or news worthy. Ex. high school football team wins championship and article is done for local newspaper. That article will be read way more than a piece about the local water but overall the piece about the water is better news, it just didn't get read as much
Know to what constituency a journalist's loyalties always lie
To its citizens
Know the implied promise between the journalist and the audience
It is truth.
What is a publishers most important asset?
Know ways in which loyalty benefits a news organization
Most people will trust them until proven otherwise. It also makes advertising more credible, makes e-commerce transactions on sites seem safer, makes event that generate revenue worthy of attending
Define native advertising
Ads are designed to look and feel like editorial content.
Know another term for native advertising
Know definition of journalistic independence
Allegiance to citizens always knowing your readers are the people you serve first
Know the New York Times reporter whose plagiarism (and its cover-up) enraged NYT news staffers
Know the debacle between the Los Angeles Times and the owners of the Staples
The business side of Times was cutting deals with Staples and telling them to have their sub-contractors put ads in the papers
Know why Adolph Ochs bought the New York Times in 1896
He believed New Yorkers were tired of sensationalism of Hearst and Pulitzer-produced more tasteful and accurate journalism
Know what led to the creation of the American Society of Newspaper Editors
The criticisms of Will Irwin-he wrote a 15 part series in Collier magazine. He wrote about all the things he saw wrong
Know when newspaper ownership evolved into monopolies
What slogans did many Tv news programs use in the 1990's to instill viewers' trust?
"you and me together"
"you are my boss"
Know what caused journalistic isolation in 1990's
many journalists got hired by the local paper they had grown up around and then they grew to larger newspapers from there but they began to isolate themselves from the audiences they wanted to serve. Stopped going out as much, talked to less ppl, etc..
Know 3 major events that affected how news coverage became more subjective and opinionated
Vietnam War, Watergate, Advent of 24 hour news channels
Know how news coverage of political candidates changed from late 1960's to late 1980's
News channels were doing more talking about what candidates said and trying to interpret that information rather than letting the candidates just talk.
Know what demographic advertisers focus on because of this group's buying power
Women between ages of 18 and 49
Know why news content was affected by advertisers' desire to focus only on certain demographics
Because they would write about stories from the areas they were targeting where people paid more for the news and other places were getting covered less.
Know the two industries that were the financial backbones of newspaper advertising
Grocery Stores and Department Stores
Know the arguments between the business side and the journalism side of news organizations by the early 2000s
Know the definition of MBO
Management of Objective
What should newsroom managers been pushing rather than profits?
Know the essential product of journalism
Journalists' relationships with audiences are built on these seven components
Commitment to the community
Know the definition of The Wall
Also known as the Fire Wall. Legendary idea that journalists live on one side of the wall and all the business people live on the other. This way there's no influence from one side to the other. Then Journalists can pursue stories they know are legit and on the other side of the wall the circulation people, advertisement people, etc.. will get them information and all the things they need to write the story and still stay on separate sides
Know how Robert McCormick kept his news and business sides from interacting
He constructed two separate elevators in the building
What did academic research suggest news organizations do to improve their financial standings?
Why did newspaper advertising drop more than readership between 2005-13?
How did broadcast news evolve to compete with 24 hr news channels?
Number one topic was crime coverage. Crime would sell. Also entertainment (feel good, personal stories, etc..)
in 2013, what caused the gain in newspaper circulation revenue for the first time in a decade?
Charging for digital content
Know the five components needed to instill trust in the news
-Owner must be committed to its citizens first
-Hire business managers who also put citizens' first
-Journalists have final say over news
-Set and communicate clear standards internally
-Communicate clear standards to public
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