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cabinet: not official in const, group of advisors who met. judiciary: 13 district courts, 1 supreme court with a chief justice and 5 other justices (john jay - first chief justice). economy was short on credit & in debt. madison proposed a tariff on imported goods for revenue and higher tariffs on some things to promote internal production/industry. report on credit: hamilton addressed war debt and said that citizens would be repaid for war bonds and natl govt would assume state debt, would promote natlism and unity
hamiltons view of the role and power of the natl govt vs. Jeffersons
hamilton was for loose construction and interpretation, less govt action. jefferson and madison were for strict interpretation and little regulation of govt (repubs)
different parties and leaders
Federalists: Hamilton - capitalist, National Bank, tariffs, internal improvement, strong central govt. Republicans: Jefferson & Madison - decentralized govt., indep farming
Battle over BUS, state debts, natl capital
Jefferson & Madison opposed assumption of state debts b/c that helped NE more than the south. He agreed to hamilton's financial plan only if the natl capital was moved to the Potomac (compromise of 1790). Bank: Hamilton wanted it for uniform currency, no more shortage, govt control but backed by private investors, source of loans, money within govt, Madison opposed b/c it wasnt called for in the const., hamilton said the ends justified the mans, passed with GW in 1791
Washington's views on parties, sectionalism, and american foreign policy
wasnt part of a party, merely witnessed division, called for unity among ppl (anti-sectionalism), neutrality/indep in foreign policy, no permanent/binding agreements, no extremism
1791 excise tax on liquor angered farmers b/c it was widely used, more convenient than bulky crops, and now it was made expensive, so rebellion in PA terrorized revenue officers and taxpayers, GW called on army, rebels vanished, assertion of strength made federalists lose supporters
Jays treaty & public reaction to it
1794, US would pay rev. debts to brit merchants, brit leaves NW forts by 1796 & pays for seizure of US cargo, limited trade with west indies. controversial b/c of disappointment w/ measures, GW said its the best they can get, Repubs opposed it
Treaty of Greenville, indian reaction
1795 - fighting in NW over land, indians killed and land seized, US got land (ohio, indiana, detroit, chicago) for $10,000. indians lost a lot of land
adams presidency, nations main prob?
adams - federalist. unofficial naval war with french, upset about brit leaving favored in trade, XYZ affair - wanted a bribe US refused. In country: increasing divide btwn political parties, adams tried to stay neutral/compromise with jefferson but jefferson made it hard b/c he was under influence of madison
what did the feds hope to gain by passing alien and sedition acts?
suppress those who support french, radicals, traitors, and repubs by limiting criticism of govt, authorizing deportation, making 14 yr requirement for citizenship
Jefferson & Madison's reaction to alien/sedition acts
thought they were to suppress repubs, passed KY and VA saying states should decide when fed govt goes too far (nullification!), said these acts were unconst., tried to get other states to get a repeal, didnt work
judiciary act of 1801 adams put feds in judicial positions right before leaving office, expanded judiciary, feds were over & these were the last of them in govt
feds lasting influence
pro-brit, repressive, took control of courts, election of 1800: transfer of power by the ppl's participation, not just elite, S slaveholders in office for next 24 yrs, huge party division seen
jeffersons greatest achievement
LA purchase of 1803 - US bought it from France for $15 mil, no determined boundaries
famous expedition secretly supported by jefferson
lewis & clark! 1804 expedition to explore LA territory, Sacagawea & indians helped them
was jefferson true to his principles?
reduced govt. expenses, repaid debt, repealed whiskey tax, relied on tariffs & western land sales, cut back military, outlawed slave trade starting 1-1-1808
how did jefferson treat feds thru out the natl govt during his administration
ousted 1 fed judge after John Marshall asserted judicial review and struck down the judiciary act of 1789, tried to counter fed influence, repealed judiciary act of 1801 in 1802, all those fed judges deleted
main probs for jeffersons foreign policy
war with barbary pirates in 1801-1805, had to pay ransom for Philly crew, US couldnt keep trading with French and British w/o conflicts
effects of embargo act on economy
1807 - stopped all exports, prohibited am. ships from leaving foreign ports. failed in 1809 b/c feds revived and saw TJ as favoring french, illegal trade still happened thru smuggling, farmers needed to export crops
what did john marshall establish in his decision in marbury v. madison?
judicial review (declaring a federal law unconst.)
what judicial decision protected the BUS from state interference?
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819, Maryland tried to tax US bank notes, SC ruled in McCulloch's favor)
what was established in the Gibbons V. Ogden decision?
national supremacy in interstate commerce - states had concurrent regulation unless it interfered with federal policy
private corporations ruled beyond the reach of the states that chartered them, so states put in the contract for companies that they were subject to modification
causes of the growth of sectionalism during early decades
dif economic goals (manufacturing v. farming/tariff v. export), divide on promotion of slavery, repubs v. feds
causes of war of 1812
US wanted neutral shipping rights, France would agree if Britain withdrew, britain was reluctant to go to war with the US who put pressure on them, but US declared war on brit first, US had weak army but OK navy, defeated in the north until british ship lawrence was defeated,=
results of war of 1812
brit evacuated great lakes, washington DC was burned, treaty of ghent 1814 - both sides dropped demands, war not worth it, agreed to return prisoners, end war, restore boundaries
party differences over war of 1812
repubs (S & W): pro war b/c needed to export. Feds (NE): anti war b/c benefitted from smuggling
22 delegates from states, proposed 7 const. amends to limit repub influence, nothing really happens, marked fed party as disloyal
during war of 1812 why did indians support brit?
brit supported indians b.c fur trade relations, brit provoked indians into fighting with them
after war of 1812, growing strength of US
american system was put in place, national unity & pride, trade increased with brit, LA territory grew, Oregon country could now be occupied
where did US expand after war? (b/c of jacksons troops)
east and south, moved indians west with indian removal act
cause of MO crisis
11 free states & 11 slave states, MO wanted to join but govt couldnt decide if it should be slave or free
how was MO crisis resolved?
MO compromise: maine would be admitted as free state & MO as a slave state. ALSO all states formed in the Union north of the s. border of MO in the area of the LA purchase would be free. MO compromise merely postponed americas probs
reasons for development of monroe doctrine
rumors of spanish king wanting power over spain's american empire
main points of american foreign policy in monroe doctrine
1. american continents cant be considered for future colonization by europe 2. europe cant extend their political system to US 3. US wont interfere with existing european colonies 4. US would keep out of internal affairs in europe & theirs wars
changes that affected women during this period
not included in education, soon allowed to be educated b/c america needed teachers, some schools would teach women domestic skills for the household or music/dance
republican motherhood, education
RM: begins in rev period, women must raise virtuous citizens, women educated in order to raise their children well
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