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161 terms

Final Exam Review

STUDY
PLAY
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight
An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called
body mass index
If a normal 30-year-old woman has a daily energy expenditure of 2200 kcalories, what would be her expected output when she reaches 60 years of age?
1885 kcal
About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
4 hours
Chris has been competing all day in a track competition and is now ready for the 100-meter dash. Although he feels tired, which of the following high-energy muscle compounds can he rely on for quick energy in this event?
creatine phosphate
What should be the composition of the last (pregame) meal before an athletic event?
High-carbohydrate, low-fiber, providing 300 to 800 kcal
During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
transfer of energy to make ATP
For optimal performance, the athlete's precompetition meal may include all of the following except
beans
For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?
20-35%
Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?
Choline
A similar type of anemia is produced when there is a deficiency of either
Vitamin B12 or folate
The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually
Night blindness
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
Children
What type of foods should be controlled in individuals taking anticoagulant medicines?
Green leafy vegetables
All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except
the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight.
Which of the following is a feature of magnesium nutrition?
Deficiency is associated with hypertension
A person's highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)
30
What is the best approach to weight loss?
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
You work with a primary care physician to help newly pregnant women plan their diets. What vital information is needed to formulate a plan of weight gain?
Weight and height
Which of the following is not a characteristic of preeclampsia?
It almost always progresses slowly into eclampsia
A positive relationship exists between sudden infant death syndrome and which of the following behaviors during pregnancy?
Cigarette smoking
Among the following, which is not known to represent a significant risk factor for a pregnancy being affected by a neural tube defect?
Age at time of pregnancy
It is still acceptable for a mother to breastfeed even if she has
An ordinary cold
In what period of pregnancy would most damage from alcohol consumption occur?
First trimester
The number of extra kcalories per day needed to produce a normal supply of milk during the first six months of lactation is approximately
500
Which of the following foods should be especially limited in the diet of individuals with hemochromatosis?
Iron-fortified cereals
In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time is usually an indication of
excessive fluid retention
Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?
Intestinal absorption increases substantially
The component of weight gain during pregnancy that is similar to the average weight of the infant at birth is the
maternal fat stores
The common problems of pregnancy include all of the following except
low blood pressure
Penny is a new mom and, on the advice of her doctor, has been eating an extra whole-wheat bagel with strawberry jelly every night in addition to her nutrient-dense diet. Why did Penny receive this advice?
These bagels provide the extra carbohydrates and fiber lactating mothers need for lactose production
Keshan disease results from a deficiency of
selenium
Which of the following is a property of selenium in nutrition?
Severe deficiency is associated with heart disease in China
Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?
Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
abdomen
Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
fever
Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?
broccoli
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
inadequate absorption
Which of the following is a general function of vitamin C?
antioxidant agent
Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower
physical activity level
Substantial health benefits may be achieved by engaging in a moderately intense level of exercise at a frequency of at least
2.5 hours/week
What is the name of the vitamin D-deficiency disease in adults?
Osteomalacia
Which of the following is not known to be required in the diet of human beings?
Lipoic acid
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
abdomen
The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
Satiety
A woman with a severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may give birth to a child with
cretinism
Which of the following fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?
peaches and strawberries
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status?
infant's birth weight
To maintain physical fitness during pregnancy, all of the following activities are considered acceptable except
saunas
What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman?
25-35
The first detectable sign of vitamin A deficiency is usually
night blindness
How can water loss from the body be quickly estimated at the end of a physical activity?
Take the difference in body weight (lbs) before and after the event and multiply by 2 to determine cups of water loss
The components of fitness include all of the following except
bone fragility
Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?
It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment
The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in
complex carbohydrates
Obesity resulting from an increase in the size of fat cells is termed
hypertrophic obesity
What is the best approach to weight loss?
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of
lactose
Which of the following minerals is least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet?
phosphorus
All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract except
oxalates
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except
lactose in the diet
What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?
kidneys
Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed
goat's milk
Which of the following is a feature of vitamins?
The quantities present in foods are measured in micrograms or milligrams
Which of the following is an early sign of vitamin C deficiency?
bleeding gums
Your brother Bob is a competitive body builder. His trainer suggested that he consume 4 egg white omelets per day. Bob remembers a warning about a possible vitamin deficiency from consuming too many egg whites and asks if he should follow the prescribed diet. Your reply to Bob is that he should not
be concerned, because, when the eggs are cooked, the avidin protein is denatured, and thus does not pose a problem for deficiency disease.
While researching your southern family history, you find that your grandmother had a sister who died fairly young. The symptoms leading up to her death included diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. Because the family led a poor, corn-farming existence, you suspect this relative died of
pellagra
After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behavior known as
appetite
Reasons why people choose to become vegetarians include
any of the above
Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
fever
Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index?
it correlates with disease risk
Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as "pear-like." John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is "apple-like." Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?
He has central obesity
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
corn oil
All of the following are forms of vitamin A except
retinoquinone.
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
children
Which of the following is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of vitamin A?
Xerophthalmia
Keratinization is the result of
deficiency of Vitamin A
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
meats and whole-grain cereals
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
public water
All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
MFP factor
What is the name given to the ingestion of non-nutritive substances?
pica
A feature of heavy caffeine use in human pregnancy is that it may
increase the risk of infant death
Among the following, which is not known to represent a significant risk factor for a pregnancy being affected by a neural tube defect?
age at time of pregnancy
Which of the following describes an infant born during the 43rd week of pregnancy?
post term
Tobacco use in pregnancy increases the risk for all of the following except
macrosomia
Which of the following is not a feature of malnutrition in pregnancy?
Around the time of conception, it prevents the uterus from developing fully but spares the placenta
What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
high carbohydrate
When a marathon runner experiences the phenomenon known as "hitting the wall," what nutrient is most likely depleted?
glucose
Which of the following diets promotes superior physical performance in athletes?
high carbohydrate diet
The optimal carbohydrate concentration of sports drinks for the endurance athlete is
6-8%
What dietary nutrients are most effective at raising muscle glycogen concentrations?
carbohydrates
Which of the following is a feature of protein nutrition in physical activity?
protein is not a major fuel for physical activity
What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?
.5 liter
Which of the following defines the body's set point?
Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight
Which of the following is the best evidence that environment must play a role in obesity?
The rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant
What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs?
healthy weight
In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except
adipocyte number
Which of the following does not represent a common environmental influence on eating behaviors?
Being in a pleasant atmosphere often lengthens the time of the meal but not the amount of food eaten
Which of the following is not a general feature of the trace minerals?
They are rarely found in dietary supplements
What is gestational diabetes?
Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy
How many weeks is the usual duration of a full-term pregnancy?
38-42
Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of
3 months called trimesters
Examine the following menu for a pregnant woman.

Breakfast
· 2 scrambled eggs
· 1 crushed wheat English muffin
· 1 cup orange juice
Lunch
· 2 pieces (4 oz) fried chicken
· 2 wheat rolls w/butter
· A half of a cup mashed potatoes and gravy
· Iced tea
Dinner
· 3 oz pork chop
· 1 ear corn on the cob
· Lettuce and tomato salad with 2 tbsp dressing
· 1 slice bread


According to the recommended food intake for pregnancy, which of the following food groups is the only one that is provided in sufficient amounts by this menu?
Meats
In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time period is evidence of
edema
A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of
vitamin D
Which of the following vitamins is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
Biotin
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?
Riboflavin
On a per kcalorie basis, which of the following are the best sources of calcium?
vegetables
Which of the following is not a characteristic of obese people?
Most weight-loss programs that use state-of-the-art techniques allow for long-term weight loss
The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in
complex carbohydrates
Which of the following is a characteristic of sports anemia?
It is a temporary condition requiring no treatment
Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?
nutrient dense foods
What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
high-carb
You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient's energy expenditure?
Basal metabolic rate
An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called
body mass index
The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
excess body weight
An emotionally insecure person might overeat for all of the following reasons except
to satisfy energy needs only
Which of the following is the most reliable source of vitamin D in the diet?
fortified milk
What nutrient is important in the transport of oxygen in blood and in muscle tissue and in energy transformation reactions?
iron
A person engaged in physically active work in hot, humid weather and who wears a rubber suit to promote weight loss is at high risk of experiencing
heat stroke
A person engaging in exercise at a moderate level should walk at a speed of one mile per
quarter hour
All of the following are categorized as fitness strength activities except
kickboxing
For optimal performance, the athlete's precompetition meal may include all of the following except
beans
Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss?
2000
All of the following are characteristics of food portion sizes except
reducing portion size has a bigger impact than reducing energy density as a means of lowering total energy intake.
What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs?
healthy weight
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
What population group is most vulnerable to vitamin A toxicity?
children
About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
4 hours
A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed
35 inches
Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?
Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns
As a means to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in newborn infants, grain products are fortified with what nutrient?
folate
According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?
1 drink a day
Which of the following nutrients are required in higher amounts during pregnancy due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells?
Folate and vitamin B12
Which of the following is a characteristic of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?
The AI for calcium is the same as in nonpregnancy
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.
Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of
lactose
All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
sugars
The most common cause of iodine deficiency is
insufficient intake of iodine from foods.
All of the following are characteristics of copper in nutrition except
absorption from foods is poor.
What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
Increase in its size to trap more iodine
Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
Shellfish
Conditions associated with zinc deficiency include all of the following except
Kidney failure
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except
Lactose in the diet
Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.
A person's highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)
30
Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program?
Select less energy-dense foods
Approximately how many kcalories are expended per kilogram body weight when walking a mile at a moderate pace?
1
The most likely explanation for why women readily store fat around the hips whereas men readily store fat around the abdomen is gender differences in
the activity of lipoprotein lipase.
Folate deficiency has been reported in infants fed
Goat's milk
Which of the following nutrients are required in higher amounts during pregnancy due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells?
Folate and Vitamin B12
Which of the following is a characteristic of body weight changes associated with pregnancy?
Most women are unable to lose all of the weight that was gained during pregnancy
Which of the following nutrients taken as a prenatal supplement has been found to be associated with a lower incidence of neural tube defects?
Folate
Brenda is in her 26th week of gestation and has a family history of diabetes. She has been consuming a diet containing 60% of energy from carbohydrates. If she does not make appropriate dietary changes, she is at high risk for developing
Gestational diabetes
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?
E
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except
bananas
Pat has gained about 20 pounds in the past 5 years and has come to you for help with a diet and exercise regimen. In order to promote optimal fat loss through exercise, in which of the following activities should Pat participate?
Low- to moderate-intensity aerobic exercise like hiking
During physical performance, what is the role of creatine phosphate?
transfer of energy to make ATP
About how many kcal are supplied by 8 oz of the typical sports drink?
50-100
In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
abdomen