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31 terms

Myers, Psychology in Everyday Life, Chapter 11

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Personality
An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
Unconscious
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware but which influences our behavior.
Free association
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
id
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. It operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
Ego
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. It operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
Superego
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience)
Psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Identification
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
Fixation
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Defense mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Psychodynamic theory
A Freud-influenced perspective that sees behavior, thinking and emotions as reflecting unconscious motives.
Projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides an unclear image designed to trigger projection of the test-taker's unconscious thoughts or feelings
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
Self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Self-transcendence
According to Maslow, the striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self.
Unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Self-concept
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
Trait
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-reports on a personality test
Factor
A cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together
Social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
Reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences of behavior, internal personal factors, and environment
Self
your image and understanding of who you are; in modern psychology, the idea that this is the center of personality, organizing your thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
Self-esteem
Our feelings of high or low self-worth
Self-serving bias
Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably
Individualism
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership
Collectivism
giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly