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Wilhelm Wundt's early experiments were attempts to investigate the ___________

simplest mental processes

________- self-reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings; sensory reactions to differently colored objects; would be rejected as appropriate for the study of Psychology


_______- School of psychology that focused attention on the adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions


Behaviorists dismissed the value of introspection; _________ most clearly rejected the value of introspection

John B. Watson

In the 1960's, humanistic psychologists considered the approach advanced by behaviorists to be excessively ________


Charles Darwin believed that behaviors, such as the emotional expressions associated with human rage, could be explained by _________. _______ would most likely to agree with Darwin's assessment

natural selection; William James

The biological perspective in psychology would most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by ________

blood chemistry

____________ example: most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes

Evolutionary perspective

The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on _______ (be able to distinct example of psychodynamic perspective/definition)

unconscious conflicts

_________ example: A son/daughter becomes a good student because parental praising is responsible for his/her efforts

Behavioral perspective

_______: highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieves information

Cognitive perspective

_________:definition/application of perspective

Social-cultural perspective:

__________: children's moral thinking changes as they grow older (basic research)

Developmental psychologist

__________: study basic research on the behavioral differences between shy and outgoing people

Personality psychologists

_________: working in a community mental health center treating adults who suffer from severe depression

Clinical psychologists

______ (dual processing that occurs in our two-track minds)

conscious awareness

Biological rhythms- emphasis on mood fluctuations may be indicative of _______

SAD (seasonal affective d/o)

_______: fast and jerky movements of the eyes

REM sleep

During REM sleep, ________ typically occurs

genital arousal

__________ has been shown to diminish immunity to disease

Sleep deprivation

The _________ releases a growth hormone during _________

pituitary gland;slow-wave sleep

________- difficulty going to sleep and staying asleep


Night terrors (typically occur during _________)

Stage 4 sleep

Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that people are more likely to dream of _______than of ________


Advocates of the _____________ are likely to argue that hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of good hypnotic subjects

social influence theory of hypnosis

Research on the use of addictive drugs indicate that many people are able to stop using addictive drugs with or without professional help


______: large doses depressant as well as small doses


Use of _________: breathing slowed, pupils constrict, feelings of anxiety being replaced by blissful pleasure

heroin (psychoactive drug)

Adolescents are most likely to start smoking in order to gain _______

social acceptance

_______: (triggering the release of epinephrine and nor epinephrine); boosts _______ and diminishes ______

Nicotine; alertness; appetite

_______: a brief 15-30 minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated


Regular users of marijuana may achieve a "high" with ________ of the drug than occasional users

smaller amounts

________: A sleep hormone released by the pineal gland into the bloodstream


Research on sleep patterns indicates that sleep patterns may be _______

genetically influenced

Morphine and heroin are ________


The release of stored serotonin and the eventually damage of serotonin-producing neurons is most closely associated with the long-term use of ________


______: injecting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, experience vivid visual hallucinations and a feeling of separation from own body (effect)


The altered state of consciousness that is most similar to a drug-induced hallucination is the _______

near-death experience

A ______ refers to a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal


People's dislike of novel foods best illustrates _______


________: those who engage in spurts of excessive overeating, followed by remorse, but do not binge, purge, fast or exercise excessively

Binge-eating disorder

The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a _______

high body mass index

During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in _______ if they have just experienced ________

physiological arousal;orgasm

With the removal of the ovaries, a woman's natural _________ level

testosterone ;drops

Male sex offenders lose much of their sexual urge when voluntarily taking _______


____________ :American and South Korean collegians reported these were the top two contributors to their peak performance

Self-esteem and Belongingness needs:

________- most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movie

Arousal theory

who says : _______ accompany feelings of ______

Washburn; hunger pangs; hunger

The secretion of _____ stimulates appetite, and the secretion of ______ suppresses appetite


_____ are more likely to experience ______ if they have not experienced orgasm recently

Men; nocturnal emissions

Hypnosis involves a state of heightened openness to _______


________ can trigger 8 hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria


Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by _______ as well as _______ factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term "settling point"


Deep sleep appears to play an important role in ________

physical growth

The concept of ________ most clearly embodies the notion of _________

personality;behavioral consistency

_____ suggested that a man's inability to remember his childhood Oedipus complex illustrates _______


The parallel processing of distinctive dimensions of a visual scene such as movement, color, and shape best illustrates the importance of ___________

unconscious thought

The ______ tone of our dreams is especially likely to be influenced by activation of the _______ during REM sleep

emotional;limbic system

Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that individuals who are given ______ for pain relief seldom develop the irresistible cravings of an addict


The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was _______


________- understanding hypnosis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and the presence of authoritative presence in a legitimate context


_______ suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of the _________; feelings of guilt


_____________ assume that childhood experiences have long-term consequences for our social attachment styles

Contemporary psychodynamics theorists

The ________ is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus

circadian rhythm;

Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that women's sexual interests are somewhat influenced by the ____\\\___

phases of their menstrual cycles

The _________ emphasized the importance of ________

humanistic perspective;self-determination

As _______ just prior to death turns off the brain's inhibitory cells, _______ increases the visual cortex

oxygen deprivation;neural activity

One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called _______. This gene nearly doubles the risk of _______


Research on the sexual response cycle indicates that enough sperm may be released prior to male orgasm to enable _______


Research on the causes of homosexuality suggests that genetic influence plays a role in _____

sexual orientation

________: used to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams

Freud-free association

Self-actualized people, as described by ______, are especially likely to be _____________

Maslow;open and spontaneous

______ and _____ designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes

Binet; Simon

______programs can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies by implicitly labeling some students as "ungifted" and isolating them from an enriched educational environment

"Gifted child" ;

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on ___________

instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and drive reduction

______ is to overeating as ______ is to destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus

Inhibition of hunger; destruction of the lateral hypothalamus

The World Health Organization defines obesity as a BMI of __________

30 or more

According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by the ______


The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a(n) ________

projective test

The _________ in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is _______

defense mechanism; rationalization

A psychodynamic psychologist would find objective tests, such as T/F questionnaires, _____\__ as assessment tools because these tests reveal only ____________

inadequate;conscious motivations

___\\___ has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors

Instinct theory

_________ emphasized that childhood anxiety is caused by the a sense of helpless

Karen Horney

a complex behavior thwt is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned


a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearnce of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered

night terrors

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose on a certain level


discomfort and distress that follows the discontinuing use of a drug


diverts sexual/ agressive impulses toward object or person that is psychologically more acceptable than the aroused feelings


dislike of beings unfamiliar


Mass media standards of appearance: application

you have to look a certain way to be considered pretty

who did the parent-child interaction

Carl Rogers

Definition/application age regression

the supposed ability to relive childhood experiences. returning to infintile stages after a trauma ( fetal position)

Definition/application of latent content of dreams

the underlying meaning of a dream "hidden message"

Hierarchy of needs: Maslow (know each need/application)

physiological, safety, belonginess, esteem and self actualization

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