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94 terms

AP psych

STUDY
PLAY
Wilhelm Wundt's early experiments were attempts to investigate the ___________
simplest mental processes
________- self-reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings; sensory reactions to differently colored objects; would be rejected as appropriate for the study of Psychology
Introspection
_______- School of psychology that focused attention on the adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions
Functionalism
Behaviorists dismissed the value of introspection; _________ most clearly rejected the value of introspection
John B. Watson
In the 1960's, humanistic psychologists considered the approach advanced by behaviorists to be excessively ________
mechanistic
Charles Darwin believed that behaviors, such as the emotional expressions associated with human rage, could be explained by _________. _______ would most likely to agree with Darwin's assessment
natural selection; William James
The biological perspective in psychology would most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by ________
blood chemistry
____________ example: most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes
Evolutionary perspective
The distinctive feature of the psychodynamic perspective is its emphasis on _______ (be able to distinct example of psychodynamic perspective/definition)
unconscious conflicts
_________ example: A son/daughter becomes a good student because parental praising is responsible for his/her efforts
Behavioral perspective
_______: highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieves information
Cognitive perspective
_________:definition/application of perspective
Social-cultural perspective:
__________: children's moral thinking changes as they grow older (basic research)
Developmental psychologist
__________: study basic research on the behavioral differences between shy and outgoing people
Personality psychologists
_________: working in a community mental health center treating adults who suffer from severe depression
Clinical psychologists
______ (dual processing that occurs in our two-track minds)
conscious awareness
Biological rhythms- emphasis on mood fluctuations may be indicative of _______
SAD (seasonal affective d/o)
_______: fast and jerky movements of the eyes
REM sleep
During REM sleep, ________ typically occurs
genital arousal
__________ has been shown to diminish immunity to disease
Sleep deprivation
The _________ releases a growth hormone during _________
pituitary gland;slow-wave sleep
________- difficulty going to sleep and staying asleep
Insomnia
Night terrors (typically occur during _________)
Stage 4 sleep
Research studies of the content of dreams indicate that people are more likely to dream of _______than of ________
failure;success
Advocates of the _____________ are likely to argue that hypnotized people are simply enacting the role of good hypnotic subjects
social influence theory of hypnosis
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicate that many people are able to stop using addictive drugs with or without professional help
without
______: large doses depressant as well as small doses
Alcohol
Use of _________: breathing slowed, pupils constrict, feelings of anxiety being replaced by blissful pleasure
heroin (psychoactive drug)
Adolescents are most likely to start smoking in order to gain _______
social acceptance
_______: (triggering the release of epinephrine and nor epinephrine); boosts _______ and diminishes ______
Nicotine; alertness; appetite
_______: a brief 15-30 minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated
depression
Cocaine
Regular users of marijuana may achieve a "high" with ________ of the drug than occasional users
smaller amounts
________: A sleep hormone released by the pineal gland into the bloodstream
Melatonin
Research on sleep patterns indicates that sleep patterns may be _______
genetically influenced
Morphine and heroin are ________
hallucinogens
The release of stored serotonin and the eventually damage of serotonin-producing neurons is most closely associated with the long-term use of ________
ecstasy
______: injecting a small dose of a psychoactive drug, experience vivid visual hallucinations and a feeling of separation from own body (effect)
LSD
The altered state of consciousness that is most similar to a drug-induced hallucination is the _______
near-death experience
A ______ refers to a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal
need
People's dislike of novel foods best illustrates _______
neophobia
________: those who engage in spurts of excessive overeating, followed by remorse, but do not binge, purge, fast or exercise excessively
Binge-eating disorder
The World Health Organization identifies obesity as a _______
high body mass index
During the resolution phase of the sexual response cycle, people are most likely to experience a rapid decrease in _______ if they have just experienced ________
physiological arousal;orgasm
With the removal of the ovaries, a woman's natural _________ level
________
testosterone ;drops
Male sex offenders lose much of their sexual urge when voluntarily taking _______
Depo-Provera
____________ :American and South Korean collegians reported these were the top two contributors to their peak performance
Self-esteem and Belongingness needs:
________- most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movie
Arousal theory
who says : _______ accompany feelings of ______
Washburn; hunger pangs; hunger
The secretion of _____ stimulates appetite, and the secretion of ______ suppresses appetite
ghrelin;obestatin
_____ are more likely to experience ______ if they have not experienced orgasm recently
Men; nocturnal emissions
Hypnosis involves a state of heightened openness to _______
suggestion
________ can trigger 8 hours or so of heightened energy and euphoria
Methamphetamine
Our weight thermostats are somewhat flexible and are influenced by _______ as well as _______ factors. Some researchers have therefore adopted the term "settling point"
environmental;biological
Deep sleep appears to play an important role in ________
physical growth
The concept of ________ most clearly embodies the notion of _________
personality;behavioral consistency
_____ suggested that a man's inability to remember his childhood Oedipus complex illustrates _______
freud;repression
The parallel processing of distinctive dimensions of a visual scene such as movement, color, and shape best illustrates the importance of ___________
unconscious thought
The ______ tone of our dreams is especially likely to be influenced by activation of the _______ during REM sleep
emotional;limbic system
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that individuals who are given ______ for pain relief seldom develop the irresistible cravings of an addict
morphine
The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of consciousness during the first half of the last century was _______
behaviorism
________- understanding hypnosis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and the presence of authoritative presence in a legitimate context
Biopsychosocial
_______ suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of the _________; feelings of guilt
Freud;superego
_____________ assume that childhood experiences have long-term consequences for our social attachment styles
Contemporary psychodynamics theorists
The ________ is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the suprachiasmatic nucleus
circadian rhythm;
Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates that women's sexual interests are somewhat influenced by the ____\\\___
phases of their menstrual cycles
The _________ emphasized the importance of ________
humanistic perspective;self-determination
As _______ just prior to death turns off the brain's inhibitory cells, _______ increases the visual cortex
oxygen deprivation;neural activity
One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called _______. This gene nearly doubles the risk of _______
FTO;obesity
Research on the sexual response cycle indicates that enough sperm may be released prior to male orgasm to enable _______
conception
Research on the causes of homosexuality suggests that genetic influence plays a role in _____
sexual orientation
________: used to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams
Freud-free association
Self-actualized people, as described by ______, are especially likely to be _____________
Maslow;open and spontaneous
______ and _____ designed a test of intellectual abilities in order to identify children likely to have difficulty learning in regular school classes
Binet; Simon
______programs can lead to self-fulfilling prophecies by implicitly labeling some students as "ungifted" and isolating them from an enriched educational environment
"Gifted child" ;
Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on ___________
instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and drive reduction
______ is to overeating as ______ is to destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus
Inhibition of hunger; destruction of the lateral hypothalamus
The World Health Organization defines obesity as a BMI of __________
30 or more
According to Freud's theory, the behavior of a newborn is controlled by the ______
id
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a(n) ________
projective test
The _________ in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, unconscious reasons for actions is _______
defense mechanism; rationalization
A psychodynamic psychologist would find objective tests, such as T/F questionnaires, _____\__ as assessment tools because these tests reveal only ____________
inadequate;conscious motivations
___\\___ has been accused of simply naming rather than explaining behaviors
Instinct theory
_________ emphasized that childhood anxiety is caused by the a sense of helpless
Karen Horney
a complex behavior thwt is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
instinct
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearnce of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep and are seldom remembered
night terrors
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose on a certain level
homeostasis
discomfort and distress that follows the discontinuing use of a drug
withdrawal
diverts sexual/ agressive impulses toward object or person that is psychologically more acceptable than the aroused feelings
displacement
dislike of beings unfamiliar
neophobia
Mass media standards of appearance: application
you have to look a certain way to be considered pretty
who did the parent-child interaction
Carl Rogers
Definition/application age regression
the supposed ability to relive childhood experiences. returning to infintile stages after a trauma ( fetal position)
Definition/application of latent content of dreams
the underlying meaning of a dream "hidden message"
Hierarchy of needs: Maslow (know each need/application)
physiological, safety, belonginess, esteem and self actualization