33 terms

Ecology

STUDY
PLAY
biosphere
Anywhere on Earth life can be found: water, air, land. If you can find something alive there it is part of the biosphere.
biotic factors
Living parts of an ecosystem: bacteria, protists, fungi, plants and animals
abiotic factors
Non-living parts of an ecosystem
population
A group of organisms of the same species living in a given area that can interbreed
community
All of the populations of different species that live and interact in an area
ecosystem
A collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their non-living environment = biotic + abiotic in an area
succession
The slow, orderly, progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax community is established
primary succession
The series of changes that occur in an area where no soil or organisms existed before. Takes a long time because soil must be made.
secondary succession
The series of changes that occur in an area where the ecosystem has been disturbed, but where soil and organisms had existed before. Disturbance may be a flood, fire, earthquake, tsunami, volcano..
pioneer community
Responsible for primary succession. The first integrated set of plants, animals, and decomposers found in an area undergoing primary ecological succession. Also called an immature community.
ecology
The study of interactions of organisms with each other and their environment
climax community
A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time. It is a relatively stable long-lasting community reached in a successional series. Also called a stable community
herbivore
An organism that eats only plants
carnivore
An organism that eats only animals / meat
omnivore
An organism that eats plants and animals
pyramid of energy
An ecological pyramid drawn on the basis of energy flow (as heat) produced at each trophic level of a food chain. It is an accurate representation of energy loss. Only 10% transferred between trophic levels
food chain
A diagram which illustrates the step-by-step sequence of who eats whom in the biosphere
food webs
A series of interlocking similar food chains representing the transfer of energy through various trophic levels in an ecosystem.
photosynthesis
A process by which plants and some other organisms like bacteria use chlorophyll to trap light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars/ glucose and starches. Plants convert light energy into chemical energy (carbohydrates). Done by most autotrophs.
6CO2 + 12H2O + energy (light)= C6H12O6 +6O2 + 6H2O
cellular respiration
A process by which all living things convert chemical energy in sugars (glucose) into energy used to fuel cellular activities = ATP. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP (energy)
chloroplast
An organelle that contains chlorophyll and where photosynthesis occurs
chlorophyll
A green pigment that traps sunlight energy for photosynthesis.
mitochondrion / mitochondria
An organelle responsible for cellular respiration to make ATP
birth rate / natality
The number of births of a species in a population in one year
death rate / mortality
The number of deaths of a species in a population in one year
immigration
The number of individuals of a species moving into an existing population
emigration
The number of individuals of a species moving out of an existing population
symbiosis
Relationship in which two species live closely together
parasitism
A symbiotic relationship where one species feeds off of another living species. One benefits but the other is harmed
commensalism
A symbiotic relationship where one species benefits while the other species isn't helped or harmed.
mutualism
A symbiotic relationship where both members benefit.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
A nucleic acid that is an energy storing molecule. It is the energy currency for cells or the usable form of chemical energy.
population cycle
A pattern in which the population sizes of two species increase and decrease together in a tightly linked cycle; this pattern can occur when at least one of the two species involved is very strongly influenced by the other