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Industrial Revolution

a term first coined by awed contemporaries in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and technical changes they had witnessed in certain industries

Spinning Jenny

a simple and inexpensive cotton machine that helped with the cotton industry

Water Frame

created by Arkwright and employed a different principle that had more power and more spindles on it

Body Linen

another name for underwear because it was made from expensive linen cloth

Steam Engine

used coal to produce steam, and were used to help drain out water in mine shafts


an unlimited source that was a substitute for coal but was made from coal


the first effective locomotive that was developed in 1816 and finished in 1825 which went down the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16mph

Crystal Palace

an architectural masterpiece made entirely out of glass and iron, both which were cheap and abundant at the time

Iron Law of Wages

stated that because of the pressure of population growth, wages would always sink to subsistence level created by David Ricardo

Tariff Protection

when there was better products and government officials shot the prices up

Economic Nationalism

a doctrine created by List which denounced free trade, very popular in Germany


conflicting classes which existed, in part, because many individuals came to believe they existed and developed an appropriate sense of class feeling


handicraft workers, attacked factories in northern England in 1812 who disagreed with new machinery

Factory Act of 1833

limited the factory workday for children beteween nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents between fourteen and eighteen to twelve hours

Mines Act of 1842

prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under ten

Combination Acts

passed in 1799 which outlawed unions and strikes

Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions, which was created in 1834

common rights

the shared use of agriculture land. It was eventually abolished with the enclosure movement.

open-field system

a system that divided land to be cultivated by peasants in a village into several large fields which in turn were divided into strips. Each family followed the same pattern in treating their land and this led to soil exhaustion

agricultural revolution

a significant change in agriculture that occurs when there are discoveries, inventions, or new technologies that change production


a naturally enclosed space, the process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers


process by which skilled craftsmen are transformed into unskilled factory workers


an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

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