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Chapter 3 Section 1

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How did the English Civil War affect the development of the colonies?
During the English Civil War, England left the colonies alone for 20 years.
How did mercantilism influence England's colonial laws and foreign policy?
Charles II signed the Navigation Act, which made it so all the raw materials in the colonies were traded to England, and the colonies had to pay taxes and use British ships to trade with anybody else. England had wars over trade and land in North America with the Dutch. England took over New York and all of New England, and appointed governors.
What was Britain's colonial policy in the early 1700s?
In the early 1700s, Britain allowed for self-government in the colonies. It was actually salutary neglect. Each colony had its own governor with a group of people working beneath him making the laws (legislature). Legislature was divided into the upper and lower houses, and each member was elected by land-owning males. Both Royal Governors and Colonial Legislatures had a lot of power. Also, the trade regulations weren't enforced like they were with Spain and France.
What farming, trade, and settlement patterns defined the diverse economies of the colonies?
The Southern Colonies grew and traded rice and tobacco using slaves as their labor force. They lived on plantations near water, rather than cities and towns. In the Middle Colonies, they grew grain along the Delaware and Hudson Rivers in farms. They traded local crops. Most of the population lived in cities, where commerce was important and the people were diverse. The New England Colonies were made up of small towns and farms. People were involved in carrying trade where they took products overseas to trade for other products that they would trade again somewhere else (Triangular trade with New England/Caribbean/West Indies, West Africa, and England)
English Civil War
from 1640-1740; fought because King Charles I was taxing cities and towns without Parliament approval; Parliament won the war and had Charles I executed
King Charles I
King of England; was executed by Parliament for getting money from cities and towns without Parliament approval
Oliver Cromwell
King of England from 1649-1658; took over after Charles I was executed
Charles II
Parliament made him King of England in 1660; was the son of Charles I
Mercantilism
theory that wealth is shown by how much gold and silver (bullion) a country has
Balance of Trade
difference in value between imports and exports; England wanted to sell more goods then they brought in
Raw Materials
used to manufacture goods; came from the colonies and were traded to the parent country (England)
Manufactured Goods
products made from raw materials; came from England and were traded to the colonies and other countries
Navigation Act
made it so all the raw materials in the colonies were traded to England, and the colonies had to pay taxes and use British ships to trade with anybody else
Duty
tax
English vs. Dutch
English fought wars against the Dutch to control trade and land in North America; English took over New York and rest of New England
James II
King of England who created the "Dominion of New England" to take control of New York and New England from the Dutch; had been the Duke of York
Dominion of New England
what King James II created; what he called New York and New England - claiming they were under England's control; removed colonial legislatures and appointed governors
Edmund Andros
was governor of the Dominion of New England; appointed by King James II; he collected taxes without king's approval; had a policy of religious tolerance
Mary and William of Orange
Mary was James II's daughter; they replaced James II as the King and Queen of England; they got rid of the Dominion of New England and reestablished the colonies
Glorious Revolution
when New England colonists imprisoned their governor, Edmund Andros, and his supporters
Charter of Massachusetts
when the colonies were reestablished, it allowed the King to appoint a royal governor
Self-Government
means that the colonies were left to govern themselves; that England rarely interfered
Pattern of government
the governor is the chief executive; legislature was beneath the governor and consisted of upper and lower houses with elected members (those voted in my land-owning males)
Powers of Colonial governors
acted as chief executive; decided when to call legislature and appointed local officials (had a lot of power)
Powers of Colonial Legislatures
they created and pass laws regarding taxation and defense and set salaries for royal officials; recommended who would be judges and other officials (actually had the power)
Reasons for neglecting the colonies
England had a tradition of strong local government and weak central powers, British government lacked resources and bureaucracy to enforce it's wishes; most colonists were happy to be British subjects and recognized the king and Parliament's authority
Salutary Neglect
British colonial policy during the early 1700s where they rarely enforced its trade regulations against the colonies because it served Britain's interests
Staple Crop
is a crop in constant demand
Economy of the Southern Colonies
was based on staple crops in the south, such as tobacco and rice, with slaves as most of the labor force
Economy of the Middle Colonies
economy was farming and commerce (trading goods)
Economy of the Northern Colonies
the economy is triangular trade from and to North America, Europe, and Africa
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