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TExES Art EC-12 Domain I and II
Jewelry Techniques and Art History--Competency 005, 011, and 013.
Terms in this set (27)
Enamel Jewelry Technique (also used on bowls, vases, swords, etc. decorative art.) From practice test: "Jewelry technique of enameling or fusing heated glass in a raised enclosure." Decoration is formed by first adding compartments (cloisons in French) to the metal object by soldering or adhering silver, gold, (or copper now) wires on their edges.
Plique a Jour
Enamel Jewelry Technique similar to cloisonné, but with no backing in the final product so light can shine through the transparent or translucent enamel with a stained-glass effect. French for "letting in daylight." Developed in Byzantine Empire in 6th century AD. Currently still not often used because it is challenging technically.
Enamel Jewelry Technique where metal is carved into depressions and vitreous enamel (glass) is melted into depressions. The name comes from the French for "raised field", "field" meaning background, (though the technique in practice lowers the area to be enamelled rather than raising the rest of the surface.)
Lamination is the technique of manufacturing a material in multiple layers, so that the composite material achieves improved strength, stability, appearance or other properties from the use of differing materials. A laminate is usually permanently assembled by heat, pressure, welding, or adhesives. (Ex. Enamel used in jewelry. Enamel is glass powder that has melted after fusing with metal in a process called lamination.)
Enameling or Vitreous Enamel or Porcelain Enamel
Glass. Jewelry and decorative art use this. Vitreous enamel, also porcelain enamel in US English, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing. The powder melts and hardens to a smooth vitreous coating on metal. Enameled glass is also called "painted". The fired enameled ware is a fully laminated composite of glass and metal. From "to smelt."
Venetian Millefloi or Millefiori
Millefiori is a glasswork technique. "Mille" (thousand) and "fiori" (flowers). A murrine rod (composed of glass) is heated in a furnace and then cut into beads or disks. Multicolored patterns are viewable only from the cut ends of the cane. Now associated with Venetian glassware.
Which is a jewelry technique of enameling or fusing heated glass in a raised enclosure? A. Venetian Millefiori, B. Byzantine Cloisonne, C. Champlevé, or D. Plique a Jour?
B. Byzantine Cloisonne.
Which is a jewelry technique of enameling or fusing heated glass in a depressed enclosure? A. Venetian Millefiori, B. Byzantine Cloisonne, C. Champlevé, or D. Plique a Jour?
Which is a jewelry technique of enameling or fusing heated glass in an enclosure and then removing the backing so light can shine through? A. Venetian Millefiori, B. Byzantine Cloisonne, C. Champlevé, or D. Plique a Jour?
D. Plique a Jour
Which is used on wood? A. Masonry, B. Stain, C. Enamel, or D. 3-color glaze.
Masonry is building with mortar and usually bricks, stone, tile, etc.
Enamel is melted glass.
Glaze coats pottery and ceramics.
Cloth that is traditionally made using a manual wax-resist dyeing technique. Indonesian Javanese traditional batik is in indigo, dark brown, and white, which represent the three major Hindu Gods (Brahmā, Vishnu, and Śiva). Patterns indicate nobility; traditionally, wider stripes or wavy lines of greater width indicated higher rank. Brighter colors may be used elsewhere though different sections of Asia.
In Eucalyptus bark paintings, Australian Aborigines depict topic? A. Horses, B. Hunters, C. Theories of Origin, or D. Bulls.
C. Theories of Origin.
There are many bark paintings of animals; however, every element of Australian Aboriginal art relates to the "Dreamtime," their mythological creation story. It was believed that before humans, animals, and plants came into being, their 'souls' existed; they knew they would become physical, but not when. And when that time came, all but one of the 'souls' became plants or animals, with the last one becoming human and acting as a custodian or guardian to the natural world around them. Stenciled hands reach for the souls of the departed in one work found at Carnarvon Gorge, which was created by the great Rainbow Serpent.
Art of producing silk from Mulberry Silkworms. Involves Loom. In China attributed to an Empress in 2640 BC.
Lived 400BC in India but his missionaries didn't reach China till 1st-5th centuries. Perhaps they came along the Silk Road around the time of Christ, perhaps later.
500 BC. Wrote/edited the Five Classics. Same time as Lao-Tzu, the founder of Taoism. Neither appear in art for centuries.
During the Warring States Period what dominated Chinese Art? A. Ink on paper, B. Silk painting or C. Woodcuts?
B. Silk painting. Paper was invented in 105AD. The Warring States Period is 475-221 BC. Bronze had become mundane, but silk was accessible to the masses with sericulture technology including embroidery and fabric dyeing. And of course silk painting.
Unification of China was possible because of what invention?
The Warring States Period ended when China was unified under the Qin Dynasty (221BC-206BC) for the first time through iron weapons and chariots. The first emperor of China, Shih Huang Ti ( or Qin Shi Huang), ruled "everything under heaven," but went insane. His paranoia led to his forcing people to build the Great Wall to guard him from his enemies (it decayed and was rebuilt to be what it is now). He buried alive thousands of Confucian scholars and destroyed historical books.
Tomb of Emperor Shih Huang Ti.
More than 6,000 life-sized clay figures/painted ceramic/terracotta soldiers and horses protect the tomb, or necropolis shaped like an imperial palace, of the insane first emperor of China, Shih Huang Ti, or Qin Shi Huang. Emperor of the Ch'in State (hence "China"). He died in 206 BC, and the people revolted forming the Han Dynasty.
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty ruled for 400 years. Repealed the harsh taxes of the Qin dynasty. Han rulers chose officials who were Confucian and passed the civil service exams rather than by birth; it was a time of prosperity. Flying Horse Poised on One Leg is bronze sculpture. Horses major theme of Chinese art.
The end of the Han Dynasty through to the Three Kingdom period in the third century and then the Northern and Southern dynasties,what new themes were introduced into Chinese art?
Buddhism was introduced around this time, though exactly when no one knows. Probably in the 1st through 5th centuries.
1st century, during the Han Dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD). Silk Road first opened to transport caravans of silk to the west. But the origin of silk was a guarded secret. In 552AD Constantinople stole some silkworm eggs and competed.
Tang Dynasty (618-907AD) had what new art style?
"Shi nu hua" or "painting of beauties"
Five Dynasties (907-960) had what new art development?
Art Academies. The scholar-artist style of painting.
Sung Dynasty (North only) (960-1127) had what art development?
Imperial Art Academy. Crazed or crackled glazes due to too rapid cooling were found attractive. Landscape painting. 50 foot + horizontal handscrolls invented.
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
The Sung Dynasty was defeated by Kublai Khan. The Mongols ruled during the Yuan Dynasty. Landscapes were no longer idyllic retreats but formidable environments. New austerity in painting.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) had what new art?
Wumen Painting School. Hated Mongol warlords driven out.
Qing Dynasty had what art?
(1644-1911) Last dynasty before the Republic of China. The Shanghai School. The orthodox Four Wangs focused on shan shui: "mountain-water," a style of scenery or landscape painting with brush and ink focusing on mountains, rivers and waterfalls. Shan shui arose in the 5th century.
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