Locations of independent neolithic revolutions include
Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, Sub-Saharan Africa, Indus River Valley, Yellow (Huang He) River Valley, Papua New Guinea, Mesoamerica, and the Andes
the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep
negative impact on the environment by pastoralists
Examples of how agricultural communities impact their environment
clearing land and creating water control (irrigation) systems
Agricultural Revolution (aka Neolithic Revolution) led to
more abundant and reliable food supplies
Reliable and abundant food supplies led to
increased population which led to specialization of labor, including new classes of artisans and warriors, and the development of elites
Examples of innovations in technology that improved food production, trade, and transportation
pottery, plows, woven textiles, wheels, and metalurgy
a system of society or government in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and descent is traced through the male line.
Social system that developed in pastoralist and agraian societies
A power that early states undertook was
mobilization of surplus labor and other resources
Early rulers often claimed this as a source of authority
connection to the gods (divine)
This group occupied the region of Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey) prior to 1700 BCE, and expanded their territories into an empire which rivaled, and threatened, the established nation of Egypt.
New weapon developed by pastoralists that contributed to the transformation of ancient warfare.
ancient composite bow
Modes of transportation that transformed ancient warfare and transportation itself
horseback riding and chariots
Examples of developments in architecture and urban planning of early cities
streets and roads, sewage and water systems, and defensive walls
an ancient temple that was common in Mesopotamia (or present-day Iraq and western Iran) during the the civilizations of Sumer, Babylon and Assyria.
ancient Egyptians built these as tombs for the pharaohs and their queens.
a system of writing first developed by the ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c. 3500-3000 BCE.
the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. It combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters
a device consisting of a cord with knotted strings of various colors attached, used by the ancient Peruvians (Andean South America) for recording events, keeping accounts, etc. in the region of .
Code of Hammurabi
the longest surviving text (written law) from the Old Babylonian period. Does not attempt to cover all possible legal situations. In its epilogue, described as "laws of Justice" intended to clarify the rights of any "oppressed man."
Examples of Hammurabi's Code
If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out. [ An eye for an eye ] If he break another man's bone, his bone shall be broken. If he put out the eye of a freed man, or break the bone of a freed man, he shall pay one gold mina.
Code of Ur-Nammu
the oldest known law code surviving today. It is from Mesopotamia and is written on tablets, in the Sumerian language c. 2100-2050 BCE.
the ancient religion of the Aryan peoples who entered northwestern India from Persia circa 2000-1200 BCE. It was the precursor of Hinduism, and its beliefs and practices are contained in the Vedas.
one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. It was founded in ancient Iran approximately 3500 years ago.
belief in many gods
belief in one god
Examples of interregional trade
Mesopotamia and Egypt Mesopotamia and Indus valley Egypt and Nubia
this form of monotheism began in the biblical lands of Judah and the Northern Kingdom sometime between 1,000 and 586 B.C.E. The idea of a single god was imparted to Abraham at the biblical Mount Sinai.