Chapter 13: Globalization of Disease
POL 102, Payne, Miami University
Terms in this set (59)
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs)
Epidemic-level noninfectious diseases (obesity, cancer, diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases) and causes 63% of all deaths and increases poverty
Spread of HIV/AIDs
spread to the general population through blood transfusions, IV drug usage, and heterosexual practices.
Reemergence of disease
1) growing resistance to common antibiotics
2) devastating impact of new epidemics (cholera in LA, plague in India, Ebola in Africa, dengue fever in Asia, West Nile in U.S., Mad Cow disease in U.S. and Europe)
Global Travel and Communications
-humans are most efficient at transmitting diseases
-Unsanitary conditions helped spread disease
-trade is a huge factor in the spread of infectious diseases
-increase of earth's temperature are conducive to the global spread of diseases
-ethnic conflicts, widespread violence, and wars contribute to outbreaks
Refugees and Diseases
deterioration of health services, destruction of infrastructure, food shortages, and lack of sanitation make refugees very susceptible.
poverty and diseases
incubator of disease due to overcrowding, malnutrition, inadequate medical care, and unsanitary conditions
antibiotics and diseases
overuse and misuse of antibiotics cause Pathogenic natural selection
Pathogenic Natural Selection
process that promotes more virulent, resilient, resistant, and powerful disease strains.
stresses a common and comprehensive security worldwide
focuses on the individual as the primary object of security. globalist school of thought.
emergence of human security
1) end of the cold war
2) better understanding of everyday insecurities experienced by world's poor.
3) process of globalization ushered unprecedented changes and uncertainty
UN Millennium Development Goals
Four of the goals concentrate on health-related issues
globalization of infectious diseases threatens human security
1) diseases kill more people then wars
2) disease undermines public confidence in the state, eroding legitimacy
3) disease weakens economic foundations of human security
4) disease profoundly affects social order and stability
5) spread of infectious disease contributes to regional instability
6) disease can be used in biowarfare and bio-terriorism
organisms capable of causing disease
when infectious diseases spread to a large number of people
long-lasting, catastrophic global epidemics
two factors to root of infectious diseases
1) social, economic and environmental conditions that enable infectious diseases to exist
2) various means of transmission to new populations
organisms that carry diseases. humans are infected when they come into contact with natural hosts. not negatively affected by the disease.
transmission of disease from host animals to humans through air, water, or direct contact with the host's bodily fluids, and sexual activity. or through vectors such as mosquitos and other insects.
Three Epidemiological Transitions: First
related to the establishment of agricultural communities. sanitation problems: cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, and fowl transmitted tuberculosis, anthrax, and other diseases. large populations were killed by plagues. One pandemic was Plague of Justinian and other plague was the Black Death
Plague of Justinian
Named after the Roman emperor, it devastated Europe around 541 A.D.
Europeans believed cats were witches and killed them spreading the plague. Bubonic plague that killed roughly 25 million people throughout Europe (one in three europeans)
Three Epidemiological Transitions: Second
Coincided with the Industrial Revolution. Overcrowding, environmental degradation, and unsanitary conditions led to rebounding of cholera, smallpox, and tuberculosis.
Three Epidemiological Transitions: Third
The current wave of infectious diseases for example outbreak of Congo fever in India, and growing antimircrobial resistance due to frequent use and misuse of antibiotics.
A contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract. Needs urgent attention due to lethality and speed of transmission. serious threat to children, elderly, and people with compromised immune systems.
Most lethal influenze pandemic that caused 50 million deaths.
throughout the world, large commercial poultry farms as well as the proliferation of chickens kept by families have provided ideal conditions for the spread of this.
Originated in Mexico, quickly declared a pandemic and closed down mexico city. Quickly acted upon by WHO
mutation of viruses that enhance chances of human-to-human transmission of disease.
Medicine used to treat patients infected with the avian flu
Malaria, Dengue, and Yellow Fever
-primarily found in the tropics
-spread by mosquitos (vector-bourne)
-global transportation and global warming allow them to spread outside tropical areas.
-Malaria is the worst and most deadly
-contracted when bitten by a female mosquitos that infects red blood cells, causing chills, fever and often death.
-mainly in Africa
Increase in Malaria due to...
-population pressures influenced farmers to cultivate areas bordering swamps making more
-construction of dams and irrigation systems mosquitos altered natural environment and causes breeding grounds.
-Natural Disasters destroy sanitation facilities cause standing water to breed mosquitos
-global warming causes more rainfall and breed mosquitos
Pregnant women and Malaria
-during pregnancy threatens child's development. causes anemia resulting in maternal mortality
-causes low birth-weight, brain damage, and cognitive impairment
used originally as a agricultural insecticide then used to control typhus epidemics. then used to eradicate Malaria.
Global Malaria Campaign
Intensified the use of DDT to control malaria.
strategy that emphasized the control and containment, as opposed to the eradication of malaria.
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Provides bed nets to Zambia to control the spread of Malaria
viral disease transmitted by mosquitos that acquire it when they suck from an infected person. marked by fever, severe headaches, muscle and bone pain, shock, and fatal hemorrhaging
endemic in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Caribbean Islands. fever, muscle pain, backaches, headaches, shivering, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomitting.
-Tuberculosis is rampant in refugee camps and is significant in rich countries that have high migration rate from poor countries.
-overcrowding, rapid growth of prison population, rapid growth in global travel on airplanes with limited air circulation, and global trend toward privatizing public health care contribute to reemergence of tuberculosis in affluent countries
Occurred from 1992-1995 and contributed tot he quadrupling of tuberculosis in the Balkans
Factors that Contribute to Tuberculosis as a Global Disease
1) declined in rich countries, but increased in developing world
2) many policymakers and general population in wealthy countries underestimated the degree to which their health was intertwined with people in other parts of the world
3) emergence of HIV/AIDS pandemic rejuvenated tuberculosis, new concerns for wealthy countries
4) world was unprepared for an increase in outbreaks of multi drug-resistant tuberculosis
introduced in 1991 by the WHO to control tuberculosis. five elements
1) governments commitment to sustained tuberculosis control
2) detection of tuberculosis cases through sputum smear microscopy
3) supply of antituberculosis drugs
4) 6-8 months supervised treatment
5) reporting systems to monitor treatment
-Evolved from SIV found in chimpanzees in southwestern Africa.
-Pandemic, 70% in Africa. 60% are women.
-passed from on individual to another through the exchange of bodily fluids during sexual intercourse, through blood transfusions, from mother to fetus, through IV drug use, and other activities in which blood is transmitted from one person to another.
-Globalization is a major factor in contributing. growth of human trafficking and sex trade helps to spread it.
Traveling to countries to participate in the sex industry
HIV/AIDS in Africa
-South Africa is the epicenter of global HIV/AIDS crisis
-rural to urban migration facilitates the spread in south africa
-Nature of sexual relationships: having casual unsafe and absusive sexual relationships. accept multiple partners and engage in unprotected sex, rejecting condoms.
a practice that facilitates the transmutation of AIDS. traditional sexual practice in Africa
100 Percent Condom Program
Thailand's program to protect commercial sex acts through mandatory condom usage especially in brothels
an evangelical charity involved in fighting the spread of HIV/AIDS
Abstinence, Be Faithful, and Use Condoms. Developed in Uganda to fight HIV/ AIDS; stresses abstinence, fidelity, and using condoms
TRIPS (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights)
1994. Allowed states to waive patent protections unilaterally to deal with national emergencies.
UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Program on AIDS)
1996. the leading advocate for global action against HIV/AIDS
-emerged in China 2002
-spread through coughing and sneezing 10-20% may die
person responsible for spreading disease to a large number of individuals
1) prompt identification of people with SARS, their movements and contacts
2) appropriate protection of medical personnel treating these patients
3) isolation of SARS cases
4) exit screening of international travelers
5) timely reporting of information
Global response to SARS
1) fear and uncertainty
2) stronger leadership (WHO)
3) Scientific Advances
4) Heightened awareness of Biological Weapons Threat
5) Concerns about missing another AIDS problem
International Sanitation Conference
Effort to prevent the spread of infectious diseases from developing countries to Europe
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
U.S. organization devoted to preventing and controlling the transmission of infectious diseases into the United States