71 terms

AP US History Period 4

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Federalist
political party created in the 1790s led by Alexander Hamilton, favored a stronger national government - Supported primarily by the bankers and moneyed interests
Democratic-Republicans
Political party created in the 1790's - led by Thomas Jefferson - favored limited government and state rights - supported primarily by the "Common man"
Election of 1800
aka Revolution of 1800- election that led to a peaceful transfer of power from the Federalist party to the Democratic Republican Party
Hartford Convention, 1814
meeting of Federalists during the War of 1812 in which anti-war Federalist threatened to secede from the Union - generally viewed by some as treasonous and the Federalist Part began to die out
Era of Good Feelings
the decline of the Federalist Party and the end of the war of 1812 gave rise to a time of political cooperation - associated with the presidency of James Monroe
Democrats
political party that brought Andrew Jackson into office in 1829 - supported Jeffersonian ideas of limited government, drawing its support from the "common Man"
Whig Party
Political Party created in 1834 as a coalition of anti-Jackson political leaders and dedicated to internal improvements funded by the national government
Andrew Jackson
Leader of the Democrats who became the seventh president of the US (1829-1837), known for his opposition to the 2nd Bank of the US, the Indian Removal Act, and opposition to nullification
Henry Clay
Leader of the Whig Party who proposed an "American System" to make the United States economically self-sufficient - worked to keep the Union together through political compromise
South Carolina Nullification Crisis, 1832-1833
After South Carolina declared the federal tariff null and void, President Jackson obtained a Force Bill to use military actions against South Carolina - ended with a compromise to lower tariffs over an extended time
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina political leader who defended slavery as a positive good and advocated the doctrine of nullification, a policy in which state could nullify federal law
Midnight Judges
Federalist judges appointed by John Adams between the time he lost the election of 1800 and the time he left office in March 1801
John Marshall
Appointed to the Supreme Court by John Adams in 1801- served as a chief justice until 1835 - legal decisions gave the Supreme Court more power, strengthened the federal government, and protecting private property
Cotton Belt
southern region in US where most of the cotton is grown/deep - south area that stretched from South Carolina to Georgia to the new states in the southwest frontier - had the highest concentration of slaves
Marbury v. Madison 1803
Supreme Court that declared a section of Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional and established the principle of judicial review
Judicial Review
The power of the Supreme Court to review the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819
Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the BUS - Maryland did not have the right to tax the federal bank and John Marshall wrote, "The power to tax is the power to destroy."
Gibbons v. Ogden 1824
Supreme Court decision stating that the authority of Congress is absolute in matters of interstate commerce
Market Economy
Economic system based on the unregulated buying and selling of goods and services - Prices are determined by the forces of supply and demand
Embargo Act 1807
in order to pressure Britain and France to aspect neutral trading rights, Jefferson issued a government-order ban on international trade - went into effect in 1808 and closed down virtually all U.S. trade with Foreign nations
American System 1815
Henry Clay's proposal to make the U.S. Economically self-sufficient - called for protective tariffs, internal improvements at federal expense, the creation of a second Bank of the United States
Panic of 1819
Financial panic that began when the Second Bank of the US tightened credit and recalled government loans after the price of cotton dropped
Debates over the tariff and internal improvements
Northerners generally favored higher tariffs and internal improvements at federal expense while Southerners generally opposed higher tariffs and internal improvements at federal expense
Second Bank of the United States 1816
Privately owned bank that operated as both a commercial and fiscal agent for the US government - established in 1816 under a charter that was supposed to last 20 years
Tariff of 1816
first protective tariff in US history - designed primarily to help America's textile industry
Tariff of Abominations 1828
tariff with such high rates that it set off tension between northerners and southerners over tariff issues
Panic of 1837
Economic collapse caused primarily by President Jackson's destruction of the Second Bank of the United States
Southern Defense of Slavery
southerners held a widespread belief that blacks were inferior to whites and that the slavery was good for black - also understood that the southern cotton economy was dependent on slave labor
Slave Codes
Laws that established the status of slaves denying them basic rights and classifying them as the property of slaveholders
Second Great Awakening
an upsurge in religious activity that began around 1800 and was characterized by emotional revival meetings - led to several reform movements designed to make a life better in this world
Charles Finney
Presbyterian minister who is credited and is known as the "Father of modern Revivalism" - advocated the abolition of slavery and equal education for women and African Americans
Seneca Falls Convention 1848
the first convention in America for women right's held in NY
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Advocate of women right's, including the right to vote -organized (with Lucretia Mott) the first women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, NY
Dorothea Dix
Pioneer in the moment for special treatment for the mentally ill
Horace Mann
Massachusetts educator who called for publicly funded education for all children
Utopian Communities
Idealistic reform movement based on the belief that a perfect society could be created on Earth - Significant Utopian experiments were established at New Harmony, Indiana, Book Farm, Massachusetts and Oneida Community in New York
American Colonization Society 1817
Organization established to end slavery gradually by helping individual slave owners liberate their slaves and then transport the freed slaves to Africa
William Lloyd Garrison
Radical abolitionist in Massachusetts who published the liberator, an antislavery newspaper
Sojourner Truth
Former Slave (freed in 1827) who became a leading abolitionist and feminist
Neoclassicism
Revival in architecture and art in the late 1700s and early 1800s that was inspired by Greek and Roman Models
Hudson River School 1825-1875
The first native school of painting in the US - Attracting artists who were rebelling against neoclassicism - painted primarily landscapes
Transcendentalism
Philosophical and literary movement that believed God existed within human being and nature - believed intuition was the highest source of knowledge
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Philosopher, writer, and poet who became a central figure in American Transcendentalist
Henry David Thoreau
Writer and naturalist - With Ralph Waldo Emerson, he became America's best known transcendentalist
John James Audubon
Naturalist and painter who became well-known for his attempt to document all types of American birds
Richard Allen
African American minister who established the first independent African American denomination in the US, the African Methodist Episcopalian Church
Samuel Slater
known as the "Father of the American Industrial Revolution," - brought British textile technology to the United States
John Deere
Invented the steel plow in 1837, which revolutionized farming - the steel plow broke up soil without the soil getting stuck to the plow
Lowell system
method of factory management that evolved in the textile mills of Lowell, MA, - owned by the Boston Manufacturing Company and named in honor of the company's founder, Francis Lowell - first example of a planned automated factory
Interchangeable parts
Parts that were identical and which could be substituted for one another - developed by Eli Whitney for the manufacturing of muskets
Erie Canal 1817-1825
350 mile canal built by the state of NY that stretched from Buffalo to Albany, the canal revolutionized shipping in NY
Turnpikes
A road in which tolls were collected at gates set up along the road
National Road 1811
aka Cumberland Road- First significant road built in the US at the expense of the federal government - stretched from the Potomac River to the Ohio River
Mason-Dixon Line
boundary between PA and MD that marked the division between free and slave states before the Civil War
Cult of Domesticity
the belief that a woman's proper role in life was found in Domestic pursuits (raising children, taking care of the house)
Destruction of the Second Bank of the United States 1833
President Jackson, who thought the Bank of the U.S. represented special interests at the expense of the common man, ordered federal deposits placed in state banks ("pet" banks) to deplete the funds of the national bank
Louisiana Purchase 1803
U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S. and giving the U.S. full control of the Mississippi River
Lewis and Clark expedition 1804-1806
Expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
War Hawks
Members of Congress from the West and South elected in 1810 who wanted war with Britain in the hopes of annexing new territory and ending British trade with the Indians of the Northwest
War of 1812
1812-1815, War between the U.S. and Great Britain caused primarily by the British violation of American neutral rights on the high seas. - ended with an agreement of "status quo ante" (a return to how things were before the war)
Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819
Treaty between the U.S. and Spain that ceded Florida to the U.S
Monroe Doctrine 1823
President Monroe's unilateral declaration that the Americas would be closed to further European colonization stated the U.S. would not allow European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere
Oregon Treaty 1846
after years of conflict over ownership of the Pacific Northwest, the U.S. and England established the boundary at 49° latitude
Manifest Destiny
Belief that the U.S. was destined to expand across the North American continent
Tecumseh
Shawnee leader who established an Indian confederacy that he hoped would be a barrier to white expansion - Defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811 by U.S. forces led by General William Henry Harrison
Indian Removal Act, 1830
Law that provided for the removal of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi and the purchase of Indian lands for resettlement
Worcester v. Georgia 1832
A Supreme Court ruling that declared a state did not have the power to enforce laws on lands that were not under state jurisdiction - John Marshall wrote that the state of Georgia did not have the power to remove Indians
Trail of Tears 1838
Forced march of the Cherokee people from Georgia to Indian Territory in the winter
Seminole Wars 1814-1819, 1835-1842
The Seminole of Florida opposed removal and resisted US troops
Missouri Compromise 1820
Law proposed by Henry Clay admitting Missouri to the U.S. as a slave state and Maine as a free state
American Anti-Slavery Society
Abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison - included Frederick Douglass as a significant leader of the society
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