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____is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body
the serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestines from the abdominal wall are called
each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface
lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
the ____ regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow and its neurons are found in the ____
enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
the surface of the tongue is covered with ____ stratified squamous epithelium, and has bumps called ____, site of taste buds.
nonkeratinized; lingual papillae
the ____ gland is an extrinsic salivary gland; whereas the ____ gland is an intrinsic salivary gland
the buccal phase of swallowing is under ____ control and the pharayngoesophageal phase is ____
central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes
acid reflux into the esophagus ("heartburn") is normally prevented by
the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
____ , which is secreted by ____ cells, is necessary for Vitamin B12 absorption
intrinsic factor; parietal
pepsinogen is produced by ____ and is activated by ____
chief cells; hydrochloric acid (HC1) secreted by parietal cells
why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens
so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracelluar proteins
the enterogastric reflex serves to
inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine
____ is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretions
the gastric phase
a hepatic triad consists of
bile ductule, branch of hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal vein
the small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures except
the ____ of the small intestine is/are similar to the ____ of the stomach
intestinal crypts; gastric pits
carbohydrate digestion begins in the ____ whereas protein digestion begins in the ____
the sodium-glucose transport protein (SGLP)
transports glucose and sodium from the intestinal lumen into the epithelial cells
amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the ____, and fatty acids are absorbed in the ____
small intestine; small intestine too
proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequence
pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
____ transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into ____
micelles; fat globules
the muscle tone of the ____ along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called _____
taeniae coli; haustra
bacterial flora carry out all of the following except
digest most of the proteins we get in the diet
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