APUSH — Chapter 8: "Securing the Republic" — Period 3: 1754-1800
Terms in this set (37)
Politics in an Age of Passion:
President Washington provided a much-needed symbol of national unity. He was a model of self-sacrificing republican virtue. His VP John Adams was widely respected as one of the main leaders in the drive for independence. Washington brought into his cabinet one the nation's most prominent political leaders - including Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton. He also appointed a Supreme Court of six members, lead by John Jay. However, harmonious gov proved short-lived.
Hamilton's Five Part Program:
Political divisions first survived over the financial plan developed by Secretary of Treasury Hamilton. His immediate aims were to establish the nation's financial stability, bring to the government's support the country's most powerful financial interests, & encourage economic development. His long term goal was to make the United States a major commercial & military power. His model was Great Britain.
Part 1) Establish the nation's new credit-worthiness, create conditions under which persons would loan money to the government by purchasing its bonds - confident that they would be repaid. He proposed the federal gov assume responsibility for paying off national debt from the war of independence as well as debts of the states at face value.
Part 2) Hamilton called for the creation of a new national debt. Old debts would be replaced by new interest bearing bonds issued to the gov's creditors. This would give men of economic substance a stake in promoting the new nation's stability, since the more economically secure a federal gov, the more likely it would be able to pay off its debts.
Part 3) To raise revenue, Hamilton also proposed a tax on the producers of whiskey, an alcoholic beverage made from grain mash.
Bank of the United States:
Part 4) Hamilton requested the creation of a Bank of the United States, modeled on the Bank of England to serve as the nation's main financial agent. A private corporation, it would hold public funds, issue banknotes as currency, make loans to the government when necessary, while returning a profit to stockholders.
Report on Manufacturing:
Part 5) Finally, in a Report on Manufacturers delivered to Congress in 1791, Hamilton called for the imposition of a tariff - a tax on importing foreign goods - and government subsidies to encourage the development of factories that could manufacture products that were at the time being purchased from abroad. He also proposed a national army to deal with uprisings like Shay's Rebellion.
Hamilton insisted that all his plans were authorized by the Constitution's ambiguous clause empowering Congress to enact laws for "general welfare". As a result, many southerners who had supported the new Constitution now became "Strict Constitutionalists", who insisted that the federal government could only exercise powers specifically listed in the document. Jefferson, for example, believed the new national bank was unconstitutional, since the right of Congress to create banks was not directly mentioned in the Constitution. Opposition in Congress threatened the enactment of Hamilton's plans.
The Genet Affair:
In 1793, Washington issued a proclamation of American neutrality. But that spring the French revolution's American admirers organized welcomes for Edmund Genet, a French envoy seeking to arouse support for his troubled government. When Genet began commissioning American ships to attack British vessels under the French flag, the Washington administration asked for his recall. Deeming the situation in France too dangerous, he remained and married the daughter of George Clinton - governor of New York.
Meanwhile, the British seized hundreds of American ships trading with the French West Indies. They resumed the much hated practice of Impressment - kidnapping sailors including American Citizens of British Origin, for the purpose of serving in their army.
Sent to London to present objections while serving as chief justice, John Jay negotiated an agreement in 1794 that produced the greatest public controversy in Washington's presidency. Jay's treaty contained no British concessions on impressment or the rights of American shipping. British only agreed to abandon outposts on the Western Frontier, something they should have done in 1783. In return, the U.S guaranteed favored treatment to British imported goods. The treaty cancelled the American-French alliance and recognized British economic/naval supremacy as unavoidable. Critics charged that it aligned the U.S. with monarchical Britain and its conflict with republican France. Ultimately, Jay's treaty sharpened political divisions in the U.S. and led directly to the formation of an organized opposition party.
The Whiskey Rebellion:
The Federalists was the only major party in American History to proclaim democracy and freedom dangerous in the hands of ordinary citizens. The Whiskey Rebellion of 1794, which broke out when back-country Pennsylvania farmers sought to block collection of the new tax on distilled spirits, reinforced this conviction. The "rebels" invoked the symbols of 1776, displaying liberty poles and banners reading "liberty or death". Groups considered the tax as repugnant to liberty, and an invasion of those privileges which the revolution bestowed upon them. Washington dispatched and accompanied 13,000 militiamen to western Pennsylvania. The "rebels" offered no resistance. Washington's vigorous response was motivated in part by concern for the impression that restoration of public order will make on others.
The Key of Liberty:
Hundreds of men wrote pamphlets and newspaper essays and formed political organizations. The decade's democratic cause was reflected in writings like the "Key to Liberty" by William Manning, a self-educated Massachusetts farmer who had fought at the Battle of Concord. Manning's work addressed to "friends to liberty and free government", reflected the era's popular political thought. The most important division in society, Manning declared, was between the "few" and the "many". He called for the latter to form a national political association to prevent the "few" from destroying "free government" and "tyrannizing over" the people.
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman:
The democratic cause of the 1790s inspired renewed discussion about women's rights. In 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft in England published her extraordinary pamphlet, 'A Vindication of teh Rights of Woman'. Inspired by Paine's "Rights of Man", she asserted that the "rights of humanity" should not be "confined to the male line". She did not directly challenge traditional roles. Her call for greater access to education and paid employment for women rested on the idea that the two would enable single women to support themselves and married women to perform more capably as wives and mothers. She offered new opportunities to women. Increasing numbers expressed their thought in print.
Judith Sargent Murray:
Judith Sargent Murray, one of the era's most accomplished American women, wrote essays for the Massachusetts Magazine under the pen name "The Gleaner". Murray's father, a prosperous merchant, had taken an enlightened view of his daughter's education. She couldn't attend college but studied alongside her brother with a tutor preparing them for Harvard. Murray insisted that women had as much a right as men to exercise all their talents and should be allowed equal educational opportunities to do so. Women's mental inferiority to men simply reflected the fact that they had been denied "the opportunity of acquiring knowledge".
Identify the major parts of Hamilton's financial plan. Who supported it? Why did it create opposition?:
As secretary of the treasury, Alexander Hamilton's long-range goal was to make the United States a major commercial and military power. His program had five parts:
1 - Create creditworthiness by assuming state debts
2 - Create a new national debt
3 - Create a bank of the United States
4 - Tax producers of whiskey
5 - Impose tariffs and provide government subsidies to industries
The central bank faced significant opposition. Many feared it would fall under the influence of wealthy, urban northeasterners and speculators from overseas. In the end, with the support of George Washington, the bank was chartered with its first headquarters in Philadelphia.
How did the French Revolution and global struggle between Great Britain and France shape early American Politics?:
The French Revolution became very radical by 1793, and France went to war with Britain. George Washington declared American neutrality. Jay's Treaty abandoned any American alliance with France by positioning the United States close to Britain.
How did the expansion of the public sphere offer new opportunities for women?:
The expansion of the public sphere offered women an opportunity to take part in political discussions, read newspapers, and hear orations. Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women and the works of Judith Sargent Murray. A common call was for greater educational opportunities. Although politics was a realm for men, the American Revolution had deepened the democratization of public life.
The Adams Presidency:
George Washington's departure unleashed a fierce party competition over the choice of his successor. In the first contested presidential election, two tickets presented themselves. The first was John Adams and Thomas Pinckney from South Carolina as his VP, representing the Federalists. The second was Thomas Jefferson, with Aaron Burr of New York as his VP, representing the Republicans. In a majority of the now 16 states, legislators chose presidential electors. In tense campaigning took place in the six states where the people voted for presidential electors directly. Adams received the majority of electoral votes and Jefferson, leader of the opposition party became his VP. In 1797, Adams assumed the leadership of a divided nation.
In 1797, American diplomats were sent to Paris to negotiate a treaty replacing the old alliance of 1778. French officials presented them with a demand for bribes before negotiations could proceed. When Adams made public the envoy's dispatches, the French officials were designated by the last three letters in the alphabet. This "XYZ Affair" poisoned America's relations with its former ally. By 1798, the U.S. and France were engaged in a "quasi-war" at sea, with French ships seizing American vessels in the Caribbean and a newly enlarged American navy harassing the French. In effect, the U.S. had become a military ally of Great Britain. Despite pressure from Hamilton, who desired a declaration of war, Adams in 1800 negotiated peace with France. Adams was less cautious with domestic affairs, however, and unrest continued in many rural areas.
The Alien and Sedition Acts:
The greatest crisis of the Adams administration arose over the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798. Confronted with mounting opposition, some of it voiced by immigrant pamphleteers and editors, Federalists moved to silence their critics. A new Naturalization Act extended from five to fourteen years - the residency requirement for immigrants seeking American citizenship. The Alien Act allowed the deportation of Persons from Abroad deemed "dangerous" by federal authorities. The Sedition Act, set to expire in 1801, the time which Adams hoped to be re-elected, authorized the persecution of virtually any public assembly or publication critical of the government. While more lenient than many such measures in Europe, the new law meant that opposition editors could be prosecuted for almost any political comment they printed. The main target was the republican press, seen by federalists as a group of upstart workmen whose persistent criticism of the Administration stirred up popular rebelliousness and endangered "genuine liberty". Many editors were charged under the Sedition Act.
Matthew Lyon, a member of Congress from Vermont and editor of a republican newspaper, 'The Scourge of Aristocracy", received a sentence of four months in prison and a $1000 fine. The gov also imprisoned Thomas Cooper, a lawyer and physician in Pennsylvania who had emigrated from England, for writings accusing the Adams Administration for a pro-British bias.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions:
The Alien and Sedition Acts failed to silence the republican press. The Sedition Acts thrust freedom of expression into the center of discussions of American Liberty. Madison and Jefferson mobilized opposition drafting resolutions adopted by the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures. Both resolutions attacked the Sedition Acts as an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment. Virginia's written by James Madison, called on the federal courts to protect free speech. The original version of Thomas Jefferson's Kentucky resolution went further, asserting that states could unilaterally prevent the enforcement of such laws within their borders. The legislature deleted this passage. The resolutions were directed against assaults on freedom of expression by the Federal Government, not the States. Jefferson insisted that the states "fully possessed" the authority to punish "seditious" speech, even if the national government did not. State level prosecutions of newspapers for seditious speech/libel did not end even when the Sedition Act expired in 1801.
First Fugitive Slave Law:
Enacted by Congress, the First Fugitive Slave Law required every state, including those that forbade slavery, to forcibly return slaves who had escaped from other states to their owners. The majority of the House vote agreed to the law. It guaranteed the right of a slave holder to recover an escaped slave. This law put fugitive slaves at risk for recapture all their lives. It also classified children born to fugitive slave mothers as slaves and property of their mother's master for all their lives.
The Haitian Revolution:
A slave revolution began in 1791 in St. Domingue, the jewel of the French overseas empire situated not far from the southern coast of the U.S. Toussaint L'Ouverture, an educated slave on a sugar plantation, forged rebellious slaves into an army able to defeat British forces seeking to seize the island and then an expedition hoping to reestablish French authority. The slave uprising led to the establishment of Haiti as an Independent nation in 1804. Although much of the country was left in ruins, the revolution affirmed the universality of the revolutionary era's aim of liberty. It inspired hopes for freedom among slaves in the United States. During the 1820s, several thousand free African-Americans emigrated to Haiti, whose gov promised newcomers political rights and economic liberties they didn't enjoy in the U.S. Among white Americans, the response was different - they saw a threat to America's institutions. Thousands of refugees from Haiti poured into the U.S., fleeing from upheaval. Many spread tales of killing slave owners and burning plantations, reinforcing the white American fear of slave insurrection at home.
A plot by slaves in Virginia to gain their freedom. It was organized by Richmond blacksmith Gabriel and his brothers Solomon and Martin. The conspirators planned to march from surrounding plantations onto the city. They would kill some whites and hold the rest as hostage until their demand for abolished slavery was met. On the night when the slaves were suppose to gather, the plot was discovered and the leaders were arrested. 26 slaves were hanged and dozens more transported out of the state. As a result, the legislature tightened controls over the black population - making it illegal for them to congregate on Sundays without white supervision - and severely restricted the possibility of masters voluntarily freeing their slaves. Any slave freed after 1806 was required to leave Virginia or be sold back into slavery.
How did each of the following demonstrate a growing U.S. Involvement in the world?:
Washington's Farewell Address: In 1792, Washington won reelection with everyone in agreement. Four years later, he decided to retire from public life, to establish the precedent that the presidency is not a life office. In his farewell address published in the newspapers, Washington warned against the party spirit and advised his countrymen to steer clear of international power politics by avoiding what he saw as "permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world".
Jefferson's response to the Haitian Revolution: Thomas Jefferson, as secretary of state, wrote a letter questioning and inquiring about the policies of France's new rulers toward the French colonists and the revolutionaries.
The Barbary Wars: 1801-1805 and 1815, John Adams, Jefferson. North African piracy against American trade led to the naval conflict between the Africans and the US. First conflict where America fought in a foreign area, America won both, ended threat to merchant ships; another sign of America's growing power and independence
How did the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions of 1798 threaten government stability and the future of the republic?:
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, were passed in opposition to the Alien and Sedition Acts, enacted by the Federalists in 1798. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions threatened the U.S. Constitution by arguing that the states could essentially nullify every federal law. When Madison and Jefferson wrote the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, they threatened to make individual States so powerful they threatened the very fabric that united them.
Jefferson in Power:
The first president to begin his term in Washington D.C., Jefferson assumed office on March 4th, 1801. He intended to reduce the importance of the national government in American life. Jefferson's inaugural address was conciliatory towards his opponents.His administration would follow policies of economy in government, unrestricted trade, freedom of religion and the press, friendship to all nations but "entangling alliances" to none. America would flourish if a limited government allowed its citizens to be "free to regulate their own pursuits", according to Jefferson. He hoped to dismantle as much of the Federalist system as possible. He pardoned all of those imprisoned under the Sedition Act, reduced the number of gov employees, slashed the army and navy, abolished all taxes but the tariff, and paid off part of the national debt. Jefferson aimed to eliminate government oversight of the economy - no centralized state.
Marbury v.s. Madison:
The first landmark decision of the Marshall Court came in 1903, in the case of Marbury vs Madison. On the ever of leaving office, Adams had appointed a number of justices for the District of Columbia. Madison, Jefferson's Secretary of State, refused to issue commissions - the official docs entitling them to assume their posts - to those "midnight judges". Four of these judges, including William Marbury, sued for their offices. (Marshall's decision declared unconstitutional the section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that allowed the courts to order executive officials to deliver judges commissions. It exceeded the power of Congress as outlined in the Constitution and was therefore void.) In other words, Marbury may have been entitled to his commission but the court had no power under the constitution to order Madison to deliver it. On the immediate issue, therefore, the administration got it's way. The Supreme Court had assumed the right to determine whether an act of Congress violated the Constitution - a power known as "Judicial Review".
The Louisiana Purchase:
The vast Louisiana Territory, which stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada and from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains had been ceded by France to Spain during the Seven Years War and secretly reacquired in 1800. Jefferson had been long concerned about American access to the port of New Orleans - Jefferson feared the French might try to interfere with American Commerce. He dispatched envoys to France offering to purchase the City of New Orleans. Needing money for military campaigns in Europe and with his dreams of an American Empire ruined, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana territory for 15 million. The equivalent of $250 million today. In a stroke, Jefferson had doubled the size of the United States and ended French presence in North America. Jefferson believed that he had ensured the agrarian society and its political stability for centuries to come.
Within a year of the purchase, Jefferson dispatched an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the new territory. Their objectives were both scientific and commercial - to study the area's plants, animal life and geography, and to discover how the region could be exploited economically. Jefferson hoped the explorers would establish trading relations with western Indians and locate a water route to the Pacific Ocean. 15 year old Shoshone Indian woman Sacajawea served as their guide and interpreter. Under American rule, free blacks in Louisiana suffered a steady decline in status. The local legislature soon adopted one of the most sweeping slave codes in the south, forbidding blacks to "ever consider themselves the equal of whites". Louisiana's blacks enjoyed far more freedom under tyrannical spain than as a part of the "liberty loving" United States.
Britain and France had resumed warfare, and by 1806, each combatant had declared the other under blockade, seeking to deny trade with America to its rival. To Jefferson, the Economic health of the United States required freedom of trade which no foreign government had a right to interfere. American farmers needed access to markets in Europe & the Caribbean. He decided to use trade as a weapon. In 1907, Jefferson persuaded Congress to enact the Embargo, a ban on all American vessels sailing for foreign ports. Jefferson hoped that it would lead Europeans to stop their interference with American shipping and also reduce the occasion for impressment. American exports plummeted 80%. Unfortunately, neither britain nor France took much notice. It devastated the economies of American port cities. Jefferson signed the Non-Intercourse Act, banning trade only with Great Britain and France, but providing that if either side lifted edicts against American Trade, commerce would resume with that party.
The War of 1812: The Second War of Independence:
The growing crisis between the United States and Britain took place against the background of deteriorating Indian relations in the west, which also helped propel the U.S. down the road to war. Jefferson had long favored the removal of Indian tribes who refused to "civilize" themselves. The Louisiana purchase made this policy more feasible. He enthusiastically pursued efforts to purchase Indian land west of the Appalachian mountains - as long as encouraging the expansion of settled farming and African-American slavery.
Later, James Madison became a war president - reports that the British were encouraging Tecumseh's efforts contributed to the coming of the war of 1812. In June 1812, with assaults on American shipping continuing, Madison asked Congress for a Declaration of War. The vote revealed a deeply divided country. Both Federalists and Republicans representing states with the most mercantile/financial resources voted nay. The south and west were strongly in favor. The bill passed by the House and Senate, making it the first time the U.S. declared war on another country.
Britain was preoccupied with Europe but it easily repelled two feeble American invasions of Canada and imposed a Blockade that destroyed all American Commerce. In 1814, finally defeating Napoleon, Britain invented the United States. It seized Washington D.C. and burned the White House. America faced a two front struggle against both Great Britain and the AmerIndians.
Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa:
Two Shawnee brothers - Tecumseh was a chief who had refused to sign the Treaty of Greenville. Tecumseh traveled the Mississippi valley, seeking to revive Neolin's pan-Indian alliance. The alternative to him was being exterminated. Indians, he proclaimed, must recognize that they were a single people & unite in claiming "A common and equal right in the land". He repudiated chiefs who sold their land to the federal government. In 1810, Tecumseh called for attacks on American frontier settlements. American forces under William Henry Harrison destroyed Prophetstown in the Battle of Tippecanoe. The war produced significant victories over western Indians who sided with the British. In 1813, pan-Indian forces led by Tecumseh, a commissioned general siding with the British, were defeated. Tecumseh himself was killed at the Battle of Thames.
Tenskwatawa was a religious prophet who called for complete separation from whites, the revival of traditional Indian Culture and resistance to federal policies. White people, he preached, were the source of all evil in the world, and Indians should abandon American alcohol, clothing, food and manufactured goods.
The Hartford Convention:
Jefferson and Madison succeeded in one major political aim - the elimination of the Federalist Party. In 1814, a group of New England Federalists gathered in Hartford Connecticut, to voice their party's long standing grievances, especially their own region's declining influence as new Western states entered the union. They called for amending the Constitution to eliminate the 3/5ths clause that strengthened southern political power, and to require a two-thirds vote of Congress for the admission of new states, declarations of war. and laws restricting trade. The Convention affirmed the right of a state to @interpose@ its authority if the federal government violated the constitution. Within a few years, the Federalist Party no longer existed. Their stance on the war was unpopular, the urban commercial/financial interests it championed represented only a small minority in an expanding agricultural nation. Their elitism and distrust of the popular self-government placed Federalists more and more at odds with the new nation's expanding democratic ethos.
What actions did Thomas Jefferson take to achieve creating "An Empire of Liberty", and was universal expansion of freedom the result?:
The Empire of Liberty is a theme developed first by Thomas Jefferson to identify America's world responsibility to spread freedom across the globe. During his Presidency, this was in part achieved by his 1803 purchase of the Louisiana Territory from the French, almost doubling the area of the Republic and removing the main barrier to Westward expansion. Jefferson saw a mission for the U.S. in terms of setting an example, expansion into western North America, and by intervention abroad.
Why did contemporaries refer to the War of 1812 as the Second War of Independence, was this name accurate?:
The War of 1812 was at the time often denominated a "second war of independence," as it marked the second time the U.S. had rebelled against presumed British tyranny. Even though the U.S. did not achieve its objectives in the war (impressment, the very issue on which the war was fought, was not mentioned in the Treaty of Ghent) there was a surge of nationalism and a common belief that the image of the U.S. gov had been enhanced by the war.
Whose status was changed the most by the War of 1812? Great Britain, the U.S. or Native Americans?
Though the War of 1812 is remembered as a relatively minor conflict in the United States and Britain, it looms large for Canadians and for Native Americans, who see it as a decisive turning point in their losing struggle to govern themselves.
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