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an elaborate ceremony that families hosted to display their rank and prosperity. The family gave food, drinks and gifts to the community.


an Early Native American people who lived in the American Southwest. They built impressive cliff dwellings.


A village of large, apartment-style housing made of stone and adobe


A Mound Builder culture that lasted from around 800 to 1500 A.D. Thriving villages were based on farming and trade.


a group of Native American peoples who spoke related languages, lived in the eastern Great Lakes region of North America, and formed an alliance in the late 1500s.


More than 800 symbols were used in Maya writing to record important historical events.


a bark-paper book with recorded history of the Maya peoples. Only 3 still exist today.

Popol Vuh

A book containing the Maya's story of creation.


"the Feathered Serpent" -a god of the Toltecs and other Mesoamerican peoples.

Triple Alliance

the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan joined forces and became the formation of the Aztec Empire.

Monetzuma II

this emporer called for even more tribute and sacrifice, which caused provinces to rise up against the Aztec empire.


a powerful and ambitious ruler, who conquered all of Peru and then moved into neighboring lands. He used a combination of diplomacy and military force.


in the Inca Empire, the requirement that all able-bodied subjects work for the state a certain number of days each year.


an arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record data.

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