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SOC Midterm #4 Study Guide
Terms in this set (78)
his system is recognized as the first version of a modern classification scheme of human populations. The Swedish botanist developed a human classification system in 1735. Europaeus, Americanus, Asiaticus, and Africanus.
The extension of racial meaning to a previously racially unclassified group. E.g., Europeans labeled the hundreds of indigenous tribal populations "Indians" and placed them in a single group in a hierarchy. From the fifteenth century onward, as Europeans came into increased contact with people from different regions of the world, they attempted to categorize these people based on their physical attributes. These categories became the basis of systems that shaped and constrained the people's daily lives.
preconceived opinions or attitudes held by members of one group toward another (e.g., believing that most drug dealers are black), whereas discrimination refers to an actual behavior towards another group.
behavior that disqualifies members of one group from opportunities available to others (e.g., hiring a less qualified Hispanic over an African American)
Patterns of discrimination based on ethnicity that have become structured into existing social institutions. (e.g., voter ID laws?)
Effect of western colonialism as a global migratory movement resulting from colonialism that helped create ethnic divisions by placing people in close proximity.
rise of modern racism
the concept of race did exist in the past. Europeans constructed a belief system that allowed them to justify their actions by convincing themselves that African Americans belonged to an interior race. Racism helped justify colonial rule over nonwhite people and denied them the rights of political participation that were being won by whites in their European homelands.
the practices of keeping racial and ethnic groups physically separate, thereby maintaining the superior position of the dominant group. For instance, in South Africa, laws forced blacks to live separately from whites and forbade sexual relations between races. In the US, African Americans have also experienced legal forms of segregation. Loving v. Virginia prohibited interracial marriage.
the acceptance of a minority group by a majority population in which the new group takes on the values and norms of the dominant culture.
early wave of immigrants to the United States, from the 1820s to the 1880s:
Europe- Britain, Holland, Germany, Sweden and then Ireland.
new influx of immigrants to the United States in the 1880s and 1890s:
mainly from southern and eastern Europe- the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russia, and Italy.
immigrants admitted to the United States since 1965:
Asian and Hispanic- Asian and Latin America.
The main factors underlying the Civil War were political and economic; most northern leaders were more interested in sustaining the Union than in abolishing slavery, although this was the eventual outcome of the conflict.
Progressive movement of African Americans went where starting at the beginning of the 20th century.
had it the worst compared to other races.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
the US Supreme Court unanimously decided that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
1964 Civil Rights Act
banned discrimination in public facilities, education, employment, and any agency receiving government funds.
Which is now the largest minority group in the United States?
Hispanic and Latino Americans
Members of which Latino immigrant group are more likely to be educated and come from white-collar and professional backgrounds?
Puerto Ricans and Cubans.
About what percent of the population of the United States is of Asian origin?
Which group has the lowest high school graduation rate?
Which group of Americans has the highest college graduation rate?
Which group of Americans has the highest median household income?
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
When comparing the difference in infant mortality rates between the wealthiest white Americans and the poorest African Americans, the infant mortality rates for blacks in the bottom 20 percent of income compared to whites in the top 20 percent was __________ higher.
In 2007, whites on average could expect to live __________ years longer than African Americans.
a practice whereby racial and ethnic groups are kept physically separate by law, thereby maintaining the superior position of the dominant group. In South African, laws forced blacks to live separately from whites and forbade sexual relations between races. In the US, African Americans have also experienced legal forms of segregation.
American Apartheid (1993), Douglas Massey and Nancy A. Denton
argue that the history of racial segregation is responsible for the perpetuation of black poverty and the continued polarization of black and white people.
As of early 2014, there were __________ black members in the U.S. Senate.
Which category of full-time workers had the lowest weekly earnings in 2012?
What fraction of all families headed by African American or Latino women lives in poverty?
Before the 1970s, which groups would Robert Blauner most likely classify as willing immigrants?
Not African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, Puerto Ricans, or Mexicans
William Julius Wilson
argued that race is of diminishing importance in explaining inequalities between whites and blacks. these inequalities are now based on class rather than skin color. The old racist barriers are crumbling. What remain are inequalities similar to those affecting all lower-class groups.
functions of the family discussed by Talcott Parsons
according to him, the family's two main functions are primary socialization (process when young children learn the cultural norms of the society where they're born) and personality stabilization (refers to the role that families play in assisting adult family members emotionally). Basically the function of the family is to socialize children.
instrumental and affective roles
The husband in the "conventional family" is the breadwinner and plays the instrumental role. The wife cares for the home and children and plays the affective role.
Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique, "the problem with no name"
the isolation and boredom that gripped many suburban American housewives, who felt relegated to an endless cycle of child care and housework.
Are more women working in paid employment outside the home than ever before?
changes in marital rape laws
marital rape became illegal in all fifty states in 1993. As recently as 1970, marital rape was legal in the US.
changes in household size throughout the history of the United States
18 & 19th centuries average household size was 4.75 people, the current average is 2.6. This low number is partly due to Americans living alone (widowed women and young professionals).
American family in the past
high death rates meant that the average length of marriages was less than 12 years, and more than half of all children saw the death of at least one parent by the age 21. Parents were a lot more harsh and strict on their children than today. Wives were confined to the home. Spouses had often little to do with each other.
changes that are occurring in the family globally
More romantic love is being spread to societies it was once unknown, the development of centralized government in areas that used to have smaller societies, contraception is promoted so family sizes stay smaller due to population growth, and large migration to work.
changes related to the creation of a worldwide movement toward the predominance of the nuclear family and the breaking down of extended-family systems and other types of kinship groups
trend toward free choice of spouse, rights of women are more widely recognized such as in marriage and decision making within families, kin marriages are becoming less common, birth rate declining, children's rights, growing number of and acceptance for same-sex couples and their families.
percent of American adults 65 and older who are or have previously been married
In 2011, the average age at for first marriage for men and women
men: 22.8 women: 20.3
explanations offered for the trend toward later marriages in the last several decades:
increases in post-secondary school enrollment, increased participation of women in the labor force, increases in cohabitation, and a decrease in the numbers of marriageable men because of economic deterioration.
Which group has higher median incomes than non-Hispanic whites as well as a strong commitment to family interdependence and family and friend networks that help members financially?
Which group has the highest rate of intermarriage?
When we expand the definition of union to include both marriages and cohabiting unions, about one-quarter of Hispanic women and about 9 percent of white women have experienced a birth outside of a union in 2010. What percentage of black women experienced a birth outside of a union?
comparing black and white families
blacks have higher rates of childbearing outside of marriage, they are less likely to ever marry, and they are also less likely to marry after having a non marital birth.
Katherine Edin and Maria Kefalas
in their book Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage, these sociologists offer insightful glimpses into the ways that social class affects the family lives of low-income women. They conducted interviews with 165 low-income single mothers in black and white neighborhoods to uncover why low-income women continue to have children out of wedlock when they can hardly afford to do so. Their answer was they didn't want to end up divorced or in an unhappy marriage.
The divorce rate was highest in which year?
children and divorce
children often suffer a period of marked emotional anxiety following the separation of their parents. The, later on in life 50% will most likely experience difficulties in their romantic relationships, have compromised self-esteem, and a sense of underachievement.
relationship between income and post-divorce situations
income goes down.
Explain why divorce rates increased so steeply in the 1960s and 1970s
changes in the law have made divorce easier, except for small proportion of wealthy people, marriage today no longer has much connection with the desire to perpetuate property and status from generation to generation, as women become more economically independent, marriage is less of a necessary economic partnership, the stigma of divorce has declined, adults now place a great value on personal satisfaction in marriage, and adults now recognize that staying in an unhappy marriage "for the sake of the kids" is not always the best.
What factors decreases the likelihood that a person will get a divorce?
divorce exerts a powerful impact on the lives of children, the economic well-being of women and children declines in the immediate aftermath of divorce.
Judith Wallerstein and colleagues, children of divorced parents
they found evidence of both short and long term deleterious consequences of parental divorce. Almost all the children experienced intense emotional disturbance at the time of the divorce. 10 or 15 years later, nearly half the adult children reported difficulties in relationships, self-esteem, and a feeling of underachievement.
Andrew Cherlin, divorce and children
almost all children experience an initial period of intense emotional upset after their parents separate. Most resume normal development without serious problems within about two years after the separation. A minority of children experience some long-term problems as a result of the breakup that may persist into adulthood.
gender, prior marital status, and likelihood of getting married
most likely to get married are those who have previously been married. At all age levels, divorced men are more likely to remarry than divorced women. 2 in every 3 divorced women remarry, but 3 in every 4 divorced men eventually marry again.
they have become increasingly common. 2 main pathways to single-parent households: divorce and nonmarital childbearing. Nonmarital births are to men and women in their 20s who are delaying marriage but not childbearing.
serious physical harm with intent to injure. Cohabiting adults are no more or less likely to abuse their children than married couples. 50-60 percent of child deaths from abuse or neglect are not recorded. Highest child victimization rates were for children up to one year old. Child abuse occurs more frequently in low-income families and single-parent families because of high levels of parental stress.
most common type of child abuse
1988 study by Richard Gelles and Murray Straus
16% of married persons reported at least one incidence of spousal violence in the prior year, and 28% reported that they had at some time in their lives experienced spousal violence.
For young people, how does a cohabiting relationship usually begin?
by drifting into it, rather than through calculated planning. A couple that are already having a sexual relationship spend more and more time together, eventually giving up one of their individual homes.
In research by Bumpass et al., reasons that couples gave for cohabitation
started with lower educated groups in the 1950s because they did not have the economic resources to marry.
In 2002, percent of women between ages 35 and 39 who had ever cohabited.
trends related to cohabiting
Only about 35% of cohabitors married their partners within three years of starting to live together. About half of all nonmarital births are to cohabiting couples. About two-fifths of all children spend some time living with their mother and a cohabiting partner. Approximately one-third of the time children spend with unmarried mothers is actually spent in cohabitation.
Individuals in which category have the highest probability that their first cohabitation will become a marriage within five years?
Which of the following cohabiting unions is most likely to marry?
a childless couple in which both are physicians.
According to estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau, number of same-sex families in the United States
more than 600,000
Although it is most common for young people to leave home to begin independent lives, in previous generations, young people typically left home for what reason?
to get married.
both people who have never married and those who have married but are now single due to divorce, separation, or widowhood. A larger portion of people in their twenties are unmarried than used to be the case. By mid thirties only a small minority of men and women have never been married.
How does the US Census define who is white?
a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
Has who is considered white always remained the same in the United States?
No, who is considered white has fluctuated. During the middle of the 19th century, Americans were not sure that the Irish were white. During the turn of the 20th century, Americans were not sure that southern and eastern Europeans were white.
B. S. Thind
denied citizenship because, though he was technically Caucasian, the US Supreme Court declared him not white.
wrote a book based on a qualitative study of 76 college students and young alumni from two universities on the East Coast. A representative study of undergraduate students at a college in the Northeastern part of the US that found that 78.3 percent of the men and women sampled said they had hooked up. Hooking up was found to be the primary script for how men and women interact on campus.
legality of cohabitation prior to 1970 in all 50 states
young people and cohabiting
most young Americans will spend some time cohabiting.
Daniel Lichter, cohabitation and divorce
The odds of divorce among women who married their only cohabiting partner was 28% lower than among women who never cohabited before marriage. Divorce rates for those who cohabit more than once are more than twice as high as for women who cohabited only with their eventual husbands.
Daniel Licature: What couple is most likely to divorce?
Couples who cohabited with multiple people before divorce.
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