37 terms

Greek and Roman Architecture Terms

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Doric
simple, austere in style; sturdy, masculine; capital contains abacus and echinus; no base; metopes and triglyphs in frieze
Ionic
elaborate and graceful; feminine; capital is made up of volutes; tiered base; 24 flutes; frieze is continuous band of sculpture
Corinthian
capital shows acanthus leaves; shaft is slender and sometimes fluted
abacus
the top part of a capital on which the object supported rests
acanthus
a type of herb leaf that is the distinguishing feature of a Corinthian capital
architrave
the horizontal portion of the entablature resting directly on top of the columns or piers
base
the part of a column between the shaft and the pedestal (if any) or paving
capital
the top part of a column (looking at this helps identify the architectural order)
caryatid
a column taking the form of a sculpted female figure
colonnade
a row of columns with their entablatures
column
a supporting pillar
cornice
the upper part of the entablature, containing a horizontal section and two raking cornices
dentil
one of a series of block-like projections forming a molding
echinus
the circular molding immediately under the square abacus of a Doric capital
entablature
the horizontal group of elements above the capital, divided into three major parts—architrave, frieze, and cornice
frieze
in the entablature, a horizontal band of sculpture (Doric has metopes and triglyphs)
lintel
a horizontal beam resting its two ends upon separate posts (like the top of a doorway)
metope
panels (often sculpted) between triglyphs in a Doric frieze
naos
the inner chamber of a classical temple (also known as a cella)
pediment
the triangular face of a roof gable, often filled with sculpture
portico
a porch with a roof supported by columns
post
a vertical supporting member (like the side of a doorway that supports a lintel)
post and lintel
a type of construction in which horizontal beams are held by vertical supports
pronaos
the portico of a temple or the space in front of a cella or naos
raking cornice
the angled portions of the cornice meeting at the top of the pediment
relief sculpture
carved into a block of stone
low relief
sculptures carved out of the surface of a block of stone
high relief
sculptures carved out of a block of stone so deeply that they seem to stand independently
stereobate
the substructure of a building; the remaining steps of the platform beneath the stylobate
stylobate
the topmost step, on which the columns rest
triglyph
panel carved into three vertical bands, alternating with the metopes on a Doric frieze
volute
spiral design of an Ionic capital
arch
a structure that spans a space and supports a load
barrel vault
a series of arches forming a tunnel
dome
an arch rotated 360 degrees horizontally
groin vault
the intersection of two barrel vaults
keystone
the wedge-shaped top member of an arch

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