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32 terms

Motor Speech Disorders

For the in-class listening activity
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Flaccid Dysarthria Speech Characteristics
Breathy
Hypernasal/Nasal Emission
Imprecise Articulation
Labored Breathing
Inhalatory Stridor
Short Phrases
Harsh Voice
Monopith
Monoloudness
Diplophonia
Flaccid Dysarthria Characteristics (Other)
Overall Floppiness
Hypotonia
Hyporeflexia
Muscle Weakness
Possible Diagnoses for Flaccid Dysarthria
-Lower Motor Neuron system impairment
-CNs and SNs
-Myasthenia Gravis
-symptoms worsen over time
-Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis (flaccid dysphonia)
-TBI
-ALS
-Bell's Palsy
Treatment of MG (flaccid dysarthria)
rest, palatal lift/prosthetic, meds, breath support exercises, shorten utterances, AAC, decreasing nasality (See-Scape)
Treatment of UVFP (flaccid dysarthria)
positioning and digital manipulation, vocal function exercises, effortful closure techniques, laryngoplasty (collagen or fat injection), muscle reinnervation
Treatment of ALS (flaccid dysarthria)
symptom management, rest, nonverbal communication, AAC, palatal life, electrolarynx, dysphagia management
Treatment of TBI (flaccid dysarthria)
attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC
Spastic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics
Slow Rate
Harsh/Strained
Low Pitch
Mild Hypernasality
Monotone
Imprecise Consonants
Irregular Articulatory Breakdowns
Reduced Loudness
Short Phrases
Slow, Impercise, Irregular AMRs
With Fatigue and Stress Speech Worsens
Can Sound Slurred
Spastic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)
Spasm/Tonic Spasm
Hypertonia and reflexia
Unilateral Lower Facial Weakness
Hemi-plegia or paresis
Sensory Deficits
Possible Diagnoses for Spastic Dysarthria
-Bilateral UMN Damage
-CP
-TBI
-Vascular/Strokes
Treatment of TBI (spastic dysarthria)
attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC
Treatment of CP (spastic dysarthria)
articulation therapy, rest, muscle relaxing exercises, AAC, breath support, dysphagia management
Hypokinetic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics
Low Vocal Intensity
Very Soft Spoken
Monopitch
Harsh and/or Breathy
Undershot Articulation
Short Rushes of Speech
Hypokinetic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)
Shuffling/Identifiable Gait
Resting Tremors
Hypokinesia
-excessive inhibition of movement
Festinations
Possible Diagnoses for Hypokinetic Dysarthria
-Basal Ganglia Damage
-Parkinson's
Treatment for Parkinson's (hypokinetic dysarthria)
medication/dopamine, deep brain stimulation, LSVT
Hyperkinetic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics
Inappropriate Pauses
Voice Stoppages
Excessive Loudness Variation
Effortful
Imprecise Consonants
Overall Quality Sounding Disfluent/Choppy
Hyperkinetic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)
Abnormal/Excessive Involuntary Movement
Can Have Tremors, Spasms
Possible Diagnoses for Hyperkinetic Dysarthria
-Striatum Damage
-Different Types:
Chorea, dystonia, spasm, tremor, athetosis, tic, ballism
-Spasmodic Dysphonia
-Huntington's Disease
-Tourettes'
Treatment for Spasmodic Dysphonia (hyperkinetic dysarthria)
botox injections, surgical resection of RLN or modification of VFs
Treatment of Huntington's Disease (hyperkinetic dysarthria
DAF and metromnome for pacing, speech and voice management, medications for symptoms (treatment is most effective in the first few years on onset)
Ataxic Dysarthria Speech Characteristics
Scanning Speech/Excess and Equal Stress
Slow Rate
Prolonged Consonants and Vowels
Monopitch/Monoloudness
Irregular Articulatory Breakdowns
Imprecise Consonants
Distorted Vowels
Harsh Vocal Quality
General "Slurring" Quality
Hypernasality
Irregular AMRs
Ataxic Dysarthria Characteristics (other)
General Incoordination (not muscle strength)
Dysmetria-Over/Undershoot
Decomposition of movement
Jerky, Lack of Speed, Imprecise
Trunk Instability
Possible Diagnoses of Ataxic Dysarthria
-Cerebellar Disease
-Multiple Sclerosis
-Vascular - Cerebral hemorrhage, Vertebrobasilar Stroke
-Trauma -Diffuse Axonal Injury
Treatment of TBI (ataxic dysarthria)
attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC
AOS Speech Characteristics
Slow Rate
Prolonged Speech Segments
Abnormal Prosody
Consonant and Vowel Distortions
Distorted Substitutions
Articulatory Groping
Islands of Error Free Speech
Non-Core Speech Characteristics
-trial and error groping
-perseveration
-increased errors with increased word length
-difficulty initiating speech
-awareness of errors/self corrections
-automatic is better than propositional speech
AOS Characteristics (other)
Impaired Speech Motor Programming
Normal Neuromuscular Strength and Coordination
Normal Linguistic Processsing
Possible Diagnoses for AOS
-Left Frontal Cortex Damage
-Can Occur with Nonfluent Aphasia
-TBI
-Primary Progressive AOS
-Childhood AOS
-Stroke
Treatment of TBI (AOS)
attention and orientation exercises, dysphagia management, breath support, articulator coordination, muscle strengthening, AAC
Treatment of PPAOS (AOS)
target speech early, AAC, systematic and extensive drill 9to re-learn), self monitoring, variable practice, speed-accuracy tradeoff
Treatment of CAS (AOS)
PROMPT
General Treatment of AOS
integral stimulation therapy, sound production treatment, rate modification, melodic intonation therapy, masked auditory feedback