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Questions from Dr Groppe's lecture on cell signaling

________________ receptors convert chemical into electrical signals.

Ion channel-linked

What is the conversion of one type of signal into another?

Signal Transduction

What are four types of cell signaling?

Endocrine, Paracrine, Neuronal, and Contact-dependent

__________________ signaling controls nerve-cell production.


True or false: The same signal molecule can induce different responses in different target cells.


Extracellular signals alter the activity of diverse cell _________ to alter cellular behavior.


Extracellular signal molecules can bind to ______________ receptors or _____________ receptors and enzymes.

extracellular; intracellular

Nitric oxide (NO) triggers smooth muscle _____________ in a blood-vessel wall.


Steroid hormones bind intracellular receptors that act as _________________________ proteins.

gene regulatory

True or false: Gases such as NO are the only signal molecules that can cross the plasma membrane.


The steroid hormone __________ acts by activating a gene regulatory protein.


What are the three basic classes of cell surface receptors?

G-protein-linked, Ion-channel-linked, and Enzyme-linked

Many intracellular signaling proteins act as ___________________.

molecular switches

True or false: All G-protein-linked receptors possess a similar structure.


When activated, G-proteins....?

dissociate into two signaling proteins

The G protein alpha-subunit switches itself off by _______________________.

hydrolyzing bound GTP

G proteins couple receptor activation to opening of _______________ K+ channels.


What catalyzes the synthesis of intracellular second-messengers?

Enzymes activated by G-proteins

Cyclic AMP is synthesized by ____________, and degraded by __________________

adenyl cyclase; cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase

Cyclic AMP concentration rises rapidly in response to which extracellular signal?

neurotransmitter serotonin

Receptor tyrosine kinases activate the GTP-binding protein _____.


_______________ networks integrate information to control complex cell behaviors.

Protein kinase

Activation of a _______________________ directs assembly of an intracellular complex.

receptor tyrosine kinase

True or false: The Ras protein is monomeric and a membrane-linked GTPase.


__________ percent of human cancers come from activating mutations in ras genes.


________________ activates a MAP-kinase phosphorylation cascade

Ras GTPase

What receptors are associated with cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases?

Cytokine receptors

TGF-beta/BMP receptors activate ___________________ directly at the plasma membrane.

gene regulatory proteins

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