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Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
Compared to the human brain, the cortex of lower animals____.
is small and smooth
Which hormone tends to arouse the body and is associated with fear?
epinephrine
Which of the following is a network of fibers and cell bodies that lies inside the medulla and brainstem and is associated with attention, alertness, and some reflexes, such as sneezing and coughing?
reticular formation
When the sympatheic branch is activated,
there is a release of sugar from the liver
a combination of preference for using hand, foot, eye, and ear is referred to as
sidedness
Negative after-potential refers to
a nerve cell briefky dropping below its resting level
the charge that exists across the nerve cell membrane is a result of differing
concentrations of ions on either side of the nerrve cell membrance.
Christina enviously watches her tennis rivial practice. She admires Sarina's control of the racket and finely coordinated movement. Having just covered the section on the brain in her psychology class, Christina states that Sarina must have developed
hypothalamus
In order to detect the electrical activity of a single neuron, a scientist would most likely use
a microelectrode
A new, improved brain imaging technique for measuring glucose metabolism of the brain is called the
PET scan
Bodily sentations such as touch, temperature, and pressure register in which brain area?
a parietal lobes
The part of the neuron that sends information to other neurons "branches out" into smaller fibers, which end in bulb-shaped parts known as
axon terminals
Regarding hand perferences, which of the following statement is FALSE?
handledness appears to be influenced by a single gene on the Y chromosome.
The peripheral nervous system is composed of the
somatic and autonomic system
Which area of the cortex combines and processes information from the senses and contributes to higher mental abilities, such as language?
Association cortex
Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding anabolic steroid use?
Anabolic steroids are a synthetic version of epinephrine
Although other neurotransmitters are also present, the brain's reward or 'pleasure' system has a predominance of which neurotransmitter?
dopamine
What effect do neurotransmitters from one neuron have on the next neuron?
They may excite or inhibit it
We flash a picture of a tree to the right brain of a split-brain patient and a picture of a dog to his left brain. If we as ask the split-brain to draw what he saw using his left hand (out of sight), he will
draw a dog
The use of an electrode to destroy small areas of the brain beneath the surface is called
deep lesioning
When you see an attractive person sit down next to you on the bus, the mad pounding of your heart is under the influence of the
Autonomic Nervous System
Which of the following neurotransmitters causes a majpr inhibitory effect in the central nervous system?
GABA
The condition in which too much growth hormone is secreted toward the end of the growth period is called
acromegaly
You are in the forest and see a large, snarling, drooling grizzly bear running toward you. The adrenaline rush you feel is controlled by the
sympathetic nervous system
The brainstem, midbrain, and parts of the forebrain are referred to as the
subcortex
The white matter in the spinal cord consists of
bundles of axons covered with myelin.
The subcortex areas includes all of the following brain areas EXCEPT the
cerebral cortex
According to one theory, autism may arise in some infants in some because genetic abnormalites or environment risk damage the ___ system.
endocrine
Hupothyroidism in infancy leads to
severe intellectual disability.
The cerebral cortex is divided into two
hemispheres
Megan sufferes from a phobia of kittens and cats. Even though she consciously understands that she does not have to be afraid of small creatures, she still exhibits nervousness as she watches her daughter petting a neighbor's gentle cat. Which part of the limbic system causes this fear response that megan does not understand?
amygdala
Areas of the brain that are NOT primarily sensory or motor in function are called the
incidental lobes
Regarding ions, which of the following statements is TRUE?
Ions can be found both inside and outside the nerve cell
Regarding visual images, which of the following statement is TRUE?
Visual images create pattern of activy in nerves in th eocciptal lobes which we interpet as images.
The brain produces opiate-like neural regulators that help relieve stress and pain and are referred to as
enkephalins.
Children who have premature puberty resulting in full sexual development have
oversecretion of pituitary growth hormones.
Petra was told that an artery carry blood to her brain became blocked, which caused some brain tissue to die. Petra experienced
a stroke
The peripheral nervous system carries message to and from the ___ nervous system.
central
Message flow from the brain to the spinal cord and then through the __ nervous system.
Central
Which species of animals have the largest brains?
Mammals
The capacity of our brains to change in response to experience is referred to as
neuroplasticity
The only sure way to check brain dominance is to
do medical tests that involve assessing one cerbral hemisphere at a time
Which of the following are active when we perform an action or merely observe one and are found in the motor cortex?
mirror neurons
Horror movies and science fiction stories are often based on the premise that one person's brain has been surgically removed and implanted in the body barriers would not protect against infection.
Severe damage to neurons in the CNS is usually considered permanent
The autonomic system is
self-governing
Regarding axons, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Some axons stretch up to a meter in length throughout the nervoue system.
Which gland by altering metabolism can have a sizable effect on personality with over-activity of this gland causing excitability and under-activity causing one to be lethargic?
thyroid
One's dominant hemisphere is considered the side of a person's brain that
produces language.
Which of the following statement best describes how anabolic steroids affect young adolescences?
anabolic steroids increase the risk of heart attack and stroke
Martina is experiencing what appears to be a seizure. To verify whether Martina has epilepsy, her doctor affixes small disk-shaped metal plates to Martina's scalp in order to obtain a recording of her brain waves. What technique is being utilized?
EEG