58 terms

Church history people

Who was clement of Rome?
1st - 2nd / 30-100c.

century bishop of Rome who wrote a letter to Corinth, and is mentioned in Philippians 4:3.

Was considered the 4th pope, by RCC.

Was Martyred under Domitian.

Wrote 1 Clement - which it stresses apostolic succession.
Who was Ignatius of Antioch?
2nd century / D. 117c.

: bishop of Antioch who wrote a series of letters to churches in Asia Minor on his way to Rome for martyrdom.

1. to the ephesians
2. to the magnesians
3. to the trallians
4. to the Romans
5. to the Phiadelphians
6. to the Smyrnaeans
7. to Polycarp.

- He was first to distinguish between bishops and elders.
- opposed Gnostic heresies.
- Was martyred under Trajan (111-113 c.)
WHo was Polycarp of Smyrna?
2nd century / c. 69-160:

bishop of Smyrna, disciple of John, early Christian Martyr,
- wrote an Epistle to the Philippians.
- He compiled and preserved epistles of Ignatius.
- is claimed to confront Marcion as "the firstborn of Satan

- Was martyed under Antoninus Pius.
WHo is Ireneaus of Lyons?
*(120/40 -200)*

2nd century bishop of Lyons,
He studied under Polycarp. Was a missionary and apologist.

** Writings
1. Against Heresies - against Gnosticism.
2. On the unity of God and the Origin of evil.
Who is Justin Martyr?
(c. 100-165).

2nd century apologist who wrote 2 apologies and

I.) ***Writings.***
1. "Dialogue with Trypho," defending the Christian faith in terms that were acceptable to Greek philosophy by synthesizing it with Platonism. Trypho was a jew.

2. Against Heresies - which was against Marcion.

II.) ***What he was and did.****
1. He personally opposed Marcion

2. Developed Concept of Logos spermatikos - Logos is a principle of rationality that directs course of the univers and makes it accessible to human reason. Christ is this source of knowledge. He is the Logos that the greeks talk about. (Fram w/philo & Theo, p. 91)

Now the seed of the Logos is in the soul of man and which accounts for the truths of the universe known even to pagan philosophy: Meaning Romans 1, God writes the law on our hearts. (dic of latin terms p. 285)

3. Argued for christianity on basis of prophecy, miracles, and ethics.

***Beheaded in Rome. ***
Valentinus / Gnostic Heresy
He is a prominent Gnostic. Irenaeus names him to be the author of the work Gospel of truth.

His critics Irenaeus, clement, Tertullian, and Epiphanius.
- 110-172:

He was a Christian apoligist, who latter on his life became a Gnostic. He lived from

- Was a pupil of Justin Martyr. He defended the faith against pagan miss-interpretations.

- He founded the Encratites = in the Greek it means, "self-control." it was a sect of very strict ascetic practices. It was influenced by Gnosticism, where they would reject wine, meat, repudiate marriage. They were no necessary heretical, but were always in the danger of going too far.

- His work Diatessaron - a liturical book in the syrian church til the fifth century.
Tertullian (Language, key parameters of Trinity)
c. 160-220:

2nd - 3rd century theologian, wrote Apology and Against Marcion, wrote about the Trinity,

*became a Montanist later in his life.

He developed doctrine and coined the phrases

- the name of the "Trinity."

1. The trinity = "One substance and three persons."

2. Christ = "one person" and "two substances" or "natures"

p.77 Gonzalez v1
Who is Cyprian?
C. 200-258

Bishop of Carthage. 3rd-4th century bishop of Carthage who was involved in the controversy surrounding whether or not to readmit to the church those who had denied the faith under persecution. He ruled that those who denied only after much torture could be readmitted. His most famous saying: "There is no salvation outside the church."

Unity of the Church
De Lapsis

Martyred by Valerian.
280-337 Ad.

4th century Emperor who legalized Christianity and called the Council of Nicaea.
Eusebius of Cesarea
**(C. 263-339)**

3rd - 4th century bishop of Caesarea who wrote the first church history.
Known as father of church history.
Was friend and advisor of Constantine.

- Ecclesiastical History
- Life of Constantine.
C. 296-373:

4th century theologian who opposed Arianism.

Was the most noted defender of trinitarian orthodoxy.

His writings:
- On the incarnation of the divine word.
- Against Apollinarius
- Life of Anthony.
John Chrysostom
C. 374-407:

4th - 5th century bishop of Constantinople
* Chrysostom, his nickname, means "Golden Mouth"
* He was the greatest preacher of ancient chruch.
* He was a son of a Roman office
* He stessed ethical applications in sermons.

exiled by empress Eudoxia, He died in exile.

He wrote:
- On the Priesthood
- Homilies
Who was Simeon the stylite?
(c.390-459) Saint Simeon Stylites or Symeon the Stylite became a anchorite in his teens, spent 20 years in monasteries in N syria. He was a Syriac ascetic saint who achieved fame (started in 423) for living 36 years on a small platform on top of a pillar near Aleppo .

his first pillar was 10 ft tall, but then progressed to sixty feet from the ground.
The Cappadocians
4th century men who are especially known for their opposition to Arianism and their theology of the Holy Spirit. Includes Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa.

The Cappadocian Fathers , also traditionally known as the Three Cappadocians, are:

1. Basil the Great (330-379), who was bishop of Caesarea;

2. Gregory of Nyssa (c.332-395), who was bishop of Nyssa;

3.Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389), who became Patriarch of Constantinople.
3rd & 4th cent, (251-356):

He was a pioneer of anchoritic monasticism. Which is a person who becomes a hermit in order to triumph over the flesh by prayer, contemplation, and mortification. He was born at Coma in the middle of Egypt.
4th Cent. (339-397):

He was the biship of Milan. His act of Biship was to distribute his great wealth among the poor. He was and outstanding preacher and and teacher.

He was a brave man. He once told Emperor Theodosius to repent for his mass kill of people and if he did not then he would refuse the sacraments.

He works against heresy are:
-De Fide,
- De Spiritu Sancto
- De Mysteriis.

He influenced monasticism in Italy.
345-420 Ad.

: 4th- 5th century theologian who translated the Latin Vulgate.

good translation.

4th-5th century scholarly monk in Rome who translates the Bible into Latin (Vulgate). Though he translated them, he indicated that the Apocryphal books were not Scripture.
354-430 AD:

4th - 5th century bishop of Hippo, who was one of the most influential theologians in the history of the church. Wrote many works, including Confessions and City of God.

• In opposition to the Manichaens, Donatists and Pelagians, Augustine taught that salvation
was only by the grace of God, emphasizing original sin, divine election and baptismal
Sketch a brief history of Augustine's life?
- Dates: 354-430 AD

- Born to a Christian mother, Monica

- Tried various philosophies (Manichaeism), lived a sensual life.

- hears Ambrose preach, and begins to reconsider Christian faith not to be for uneducated idiots.

- Reads Life of Antony, and is converted as he is reading Scripture

- Becomes a priest, and then Bishop of Hippo.

_ Battles the Donatists: Donatists were rigorists, holding that the church must be a church of saints, not sinners, and that sacraments, such as baptism, administered by traditores (traitors: Christians who surrendered the Scriptures to the authorities who outlawed possession of them) were invalid. Probably in 311, a new bishop of Carthage was consecrated by someone who had allegedly been a traditor; his opponents consecrated a short-lived rival, who was succeeded by Donatus, after whom the schism was named. In 313, a commission appointed by Pope Militades found against the Donatists, but they continued to exist, viewing themselves, and not what was known as the Catholic Church, as the true Church, the only one with valid sacraments. Augustine's works against Donatists are: Against the Letter of Parmenian, 400; Baptism, Against the Donatists, 400-401; Against the Letters of Petilian, 401-405; The Unity of the Catholic Church, 405.

- Battles Pelagius. He engaged in debates with Pelagius and followers, who denied original sin and the necessity of God's grace for salvation, over how God saves people. He stressed the absolute depravity of man and the monergistic character of God's salvation
Pick two major works of Augustine and briefly describe their substance and importance.?
*** Confessions: Augustine writes about his life before Christ, and his conversion. It is a sort of apologetic testimony. One reason why it is important is that it upset Pelagius. Pelagius is reacting against Augustine's articulation of human inability / divine sovereignty in salvation.

*** City of God: As the Empire is crumbling, some blame the Christians. Augustine writes to defend Christians against this accusation, and to assert that Christians should be the best citizens of the state, not the cause of its downfall. Not only does he articulate a positive posture of Christian engagement in civic affairs, but he may have prevented an outbreak of persecution.
Patrick / Conversion of Ireland
AD 385-461:

5th century missionary who brought Christianity to Ireland.

St. Patrick taking the gospel to Ireland in the 5th century. Ireland served as a base for missionary activity to neighboring areas, including Scotland and England.
Benedict / Monastic orders

Benedict was from Nursia in. He was founder of monasteries. He was title "patriarch of Western Monasticism." He founded 12 monasteries.

Monastic orders were
1. perpetuity
2. Poverty
3. Chastity

famous Benedictines:
1. Pope Gregory the Great
2. Augustine of Canterbury - first archbishop of Canterbury. in 596 was sent by Gregory the great to convert the English pagans.
Gregory the Great
540-604 Ad.

6th-7th century Pope whose reign inaugurated the middle ages and who greatly increased the power of the papacy. The was the beginning of the Medieval papacy.

* Stimulated missionary effort in England.

Wrote Pastoral Rule. Which is a treatise on the
responsibilities of the clergy.

6th c. Father of medieval papacy. Very competent civil and religious ruler.
680-754: Considered the Apostle to the Germans

Missionary bishop and martyr. He was the first to bring Christinity to germania.

- His felling of the pagan Oak of Thor at Geismar to make a chapel of its timber comments profoundly on his ministry;

- He renewed their authority beyond the Alps and extended the boundaries of Latin Christendom which had already begun to shrink in Spain owing to Muslim conquest.

-With Boniface, unity in the Western Church and the empire took form.
742-814: (Charles the Great)

- King of the Franks and first medieval Roman emperor.

-He became sole ruler of the Frankish kingdom in 771 and spent the next three decades in warfare. His greatest military achievement was the conquest of the Saxons

-These campaigns brought the heathen Slavic tribes under Charles's influence and opened the way for German colonization of eastern Europe.

-On 25 December 800, in Rome, Leo III crowned him emperor.

-He possessed power over both church and state, and practiced a kind of religious paternalism in his church reforms.

- He Convinced a better-educated clergy was needed and brought about intellectual elite of Latin Christendom in his school (palace). He brought about the CAROLINGIAN RENAISSANCE. The revival of learning in Charlemagne's reign

-Charlemagne's empire was the first attempt at unified government since the Roman Empire's collapse and was represented as its re-creation.
Anselm of Canterbury
1033- 1109 Ad. `

Born in Italy, entered a monastery in France when he was 26 and then later became Archbishop of Canterbury.

- He devised the ontological argument for the existence of God.

- His believed faith must come before knowledge.

- He held that the Atonement was necessary to satisfy the majesty of God. Rather than the older view held since Origin's time, that Christ died to pay a ransom to the devil.

He written works:
1. Monologium
2. Proslogium- discorse on the existance of God.
3. Cur Deus Homo - "Why God became man"
Peter Abelard
1079-1142 Ad.

Was a brilliant debater and lecturer, he was a scholastic philosopher and theologian. He was caught in affair with his niece (Heloise) and having a son with her. He was castrated by Heloise's uncle.

He was condemned as heretic (trinitiran errors in his writings) by Council of sens, propagated by Bernard of Clairvaux

*** his contribution was reconciling faith and reason, his saying, "Nothing is to be believed until it is understood."

his written works:
- Story of Misfortunes
1225-1274 Ad.

He was considered the greatest Philosopher and theologian of the Medieval church.

He leaned heavily on Aristotle and Augustine.

***Natrual reason leads one to the "vestibule of faith."

His written works:
- Suma Theologica

He came up with the 5 ways to prove God's existence:

1. Unmoved mover - There must have been something who always existed who created all things.

2. 1st cause - Something must be dependent on something. Plants depend on light.

3. The Argument from Contingency - meaning we see all things perishing, so then we should not exist, but we do, which means there must be something that does not perish (GOD).

4. The Argument from Degree - we see things in degrees of good and bad, which means there must have always been a pure source of goodness.

5. The Teleological Argument - It's an intelligent design.
Bernard of Clairvaux
1090-1153 Ad.

Started a monastery in Clairvaux. In his preaaching he encouraged the Second Crusade. was a very conservative, pious, mystic that was prone to stir up controversy.
Was a noted hymn-writher

Influence cult worship to Mary.

His written works:
1. Degrees of humility and Pride.
2. Loving God.
Francis of Assisi

He created the Franciscan Order. He lived a life of poverty and collected money to build churches.

His order grew alot.
Thomas Bradwardine
1290- 1349

Was an english theologian and Mathematician. Was named archbishop of Canterbury, but died of the black plague 40 days later.

He was against Pelagiansim, in which he stressed God's grace and irresistible will, His doctrine paved the way to of the development of the doctrine of Predestination.
Peter Waldo / Waldensians
1140 - 1205 Ad.

He was a clothes merchant that sold all that he had and created a following of a life of poverty. He denounced many major catholic dogmas. while accusing them of being the harlot from the book of Revelation.

1. Papal excesses and Catholic dogmas
2. purgatory
3. transubstantiation.

He created a movement of lay preacher and was short of a precurser (mini-reformation) to the reformation.

They were persecuted and sizzled out until the reformation.
Pope Innocent III and height of Papal power?
Pope Innocent (1160-1198) was one of the most powerful and influential popes. He exerted a wide influence over the Christian states of Europe, claiming supremacy over all of Europe's kings.

-He brought the papal power to its Height.

- He called for a crusade against the muslims in spain and the 4th crusade.
John Wycliffe
He has been called "the Morning Star of the Reformation."

He was a lecturer / English Reformer. A Yorkshireman who attended Oxford University. He also preached as a rector.

**Later on in his life / what he really known for.**
- He was the first Proto-Prostestant, and forerunner to the reformation. Influenced John Hus (bohemian reformer).

- He translated the first bible in English.

- he believed that the Bible was the only authoritative guide for faith and practice.

-He attacked the doctrine of transubstantiation and taught a doctrine of the Real Presence

- He attacked the institution of the papacy,

- Herepudiated indulgences, and wished to have religious orders abolished
John (Jan) Hus

He was a theologian and boheimian reformer, who attacked clerical abuses and papal authority, and emphasized the priesthood of all believers and the importance of preaching the Word of God. He was burned at the stake for his views.

• Highly influenced by Wycliffe.
Girolamo Savonarola

Italian reformer. Born in Ferrara and destined at first for a career in medicine, he joined the Dominicans.

He denounced Alexander VI and the corrupt papal court.
and became very troublesome to the pope. He was later tried as a heretic and killed.
The leading humanist of the 16th century, who wanted to reform the church through scholarship. Produced a new Latin translation of the NT, and wrote Diatribe on Free Will as a polemic against Martin Luther's theology, to which Luther responded with Bondage of the Will.
German theologian whose work was the primary catalyst for the Reformation. Recovered the doctrines of justification by faith, the ultimate authority of Scripture, and the priesthood of all believers.

THis all started in Oct 31, 1517, when Luther nailed 95 theses or arguments against the catholic chruch.

The top 4 of these would be:
1- Repent means repent - He was arguing with the vulgates latin translation paenitentiam agite, which means, "Go, and do penance."

27- This was againts Tetzel preaching of man made doctrines, "when A coin in the coffin rings, soul from purgatory springs."

62-"The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God."

92/93 ""Away then with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, 'Peace, peace,' and there is no peace. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, 'Cross, cross,' and there is no cross."

What he means - While there is no cross for us, there is a cross for Christ. But for us, there's peace.

:In 1518:
We see more of this theology of cross coming out in Heidelberg Disputation dealing with (theo of Glory & THeo of the cross).

And his work on two kinds of righteousness ( in his lectures on the Psalms & Hebrews) > saying we need and alien righteousness.

• Wrote the 95 Theses, Commentary on Galatians, and Bondage of the Will (Erasmus).

• Founded the Lutheran church
• Believed in consubstantiation
• Taught at the University of Wittenberg
• Augustinian monk
Philip Melanchthon?
1497-1560: associate of Luther who systematized Luther's work in the Augsburg Confession and Loci Communes.

Swiss reformer. Disputed with the Anabaptists, and taught a "memorial" view of the Lord's Supper.

reformer who was born in France, and ministered in Geneva, Switzerland. The founder of modern Reformed theology, and author of Institutes of the Christian Religion.
• Born in France
• Ministered in Geneva for two years, then exiled
• Lived in Strasbourg for 3 years, where he was
influenced by Martin Bucer
• Returned to Geneva, where he ministered for the
remaining 23 years of his life.

• Major theological contributions include the Holy Spirit, Presbyterian polity, covenant theology, and the Spiritual presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.

Geneva: Some of Calivins efforts to make the city into a holy city were a little too zealous. But it became of hub and safe haven for reformation refugees who flocked in from all directions. It was a base that sent out many missionaries.

Institutes: This work quickly became disseminated widely in many different translations to form, except in countries where Lutheranism dominated, the systematic theology of the Reformation.
John Knox?
Scottish reformer, who led the reformation of the Scottish church, and was heavily influential in the development of Presbyterian worship. Wrote the Scots Confession and the Book of Discipline.
Dutch theologian who founded Arminianism.

His followers came up with
(1) the decree of salvation applies to foreseen faith to all who believe on Christ and who persevere in obedience and faith;

(2) Christ died for all men; #Universal merits

(3) Due to free will of man this is only partial depravity.

(4) God's saving grace is not irresistible;

(5) it is possible for those who are Christians to fall from grace.

Calvinists refuted these points in the synod of dort. Also, The Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism were confirmed as standards of orthodoxy, and the Arminians were condemned.
Amyraut and the School of Sumur (Amyraldianism)?
1600's Reformed theologian and school that
attempted to synthesize the Calvinist view of divine election with the Arminian view of unlimited atonement.
Richard Baxter?
Puritan and author of The Reformed Pastor.
Count Zinzendorf?
1600's pietist and founder of the Moravian Church.
John Owen?
He was Puritan and congregationalist. He was a prolific writer (The Death of Death in the Death of Christ; Communion with God, mortification of sin.)

He sided with parliament during the civil war in England and went with Cromwell in expeditions to Ireland and Scotland in 1649-51 as a chaplain.

He pastored many churches, but his last church was in London.
Francis Makemie?
The founding father of American Presbyterianism, he was born of Scotch-Irish parents in County Donegal, but received his education at the University of Glasgow.

Immigrated to the US in 1682 from Northern Ireland

Pastor / Founder father/ entrepreneur/ Lawyer:

he then developed into a maritime trading business between England and her colonies in the New World. He used that business to fund his work and to fund missions endeavors. He built a water mill that supported a grain business for Virginia farmers.

Makemie taught himself law and argued cases for religious liberty in Colonial courts.
Charles Hodge?
1797-1878: Leading American theologian in the 1800's

He wrote a three vol systematic theology. Why he wrote it becasue there was a boom in incoming students who did not know latin, so they could not read turritens systematic theology.

He became an instructor at Princeton Seminary in 1820, and remained there for the rest of his life, except for two years' study in France and Germany (1826-28).

He was moderator of the general assembly (Old School) in 1846, and a prominent member of the missionary and educational boards.
Who is James Thornwell?

He founded the Southern Presbyterian Review

He helped to establish the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States during the Civil War.

Most important churchman during the 1800's in the South.
Debated many issues with Charles Hodge. A leading voice in the Old School South and the PCCSA.
Who is John L. Girardeau?
1825-1898: Notably known for his ministry among the slaves in the in the south.

Professor at Columbia Seminary. he was called "the Spurgeon of America."

His church that ministered among the slaves started at 600 people and then became one of the biggest church in Charleston, with seating for 2500. By choice of the black members, the name was 'Zion' church. There was considerable outreach among the community
Who is Benjamin Morgan Palmer?
Regarded as one of the great ministers of the Southern Presbyterian Church, he was the first Presbyterian moderator of the first GA under the Confederacy in 1861, and defended slavery.

He ministered at First Presbyterian Church of New Orleans, where he remained until his death.
Who is Robert Lewis Dabney?

Professor at Union Seminary (VA) who defended slavery and was largely responsible for the union of the Old and New school churches in the South.

generally regarded as the second great theologian of the Southern Presbyterian Church.
Charles Spurgeon?
Baptist preacher. began the "Pastor's College" for training men "evidently called to preach the Gospel," which continues today as "Spurgeon's College."

During his early ministry he fought battles on two fronts, against hyper-Calvinism and Arminianism.

he wrote biblical expositions, lectures to students, hymns, and the homely philosophy of "John Ploughman," among other works.
B.B. Warfield?

During a time of hostility to the Inherent and inspired word. He held dogmatically held to an inerrant Scripture, original sin, predestination, and a limited atonement.

He wrote: An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament.

He fought a running battle with C.A. Briggs and H.P. Smith over biblical inerrancy, which he and Charles Hodge* defended vigorously.

"Christianity is neither a mere philosophy nor an empty illusion: it is objectively real and subjectively operative, and finds its rooting both in its inspired record and in its spiritual efficacy.'"
J. Gresham Machen?
Machen was a principal founder of Westminster Theological Seminary (1929)

...and what is now the Orthodox Presbyterian Church* (1936).

He served as president and professor of NT at Westminster from 1929 to 1937.

He wrote
1. a greek text book.
2. Christianity and Liberalism (1923):
3. most definitive of his thought; The Virgin Birth of Christ (1930).
Herman Bavinck?
Was a pastor and professor.

In 1939 he became professor of missions at Kampen and at the Free University; worked in the anti-Nazi underground during World War II