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Comparative Political Systems Test #2
Terms in this set (102)
When examining the postcommunist countries that were more successful at their economic transitions, we find that, compared to the less successful postcommunist countries, they
had a stronger rule of law, which protected property rights and prevented corruption.
In many postcommunist countries, ________ has experienced a resurgence, in part because the governments have promoted it as a political tool to help legitimize the state.
While Marx argued that, under communism, differences in ________ would disappear, under communist rule they actually increased.
Ethnicity and nationalism
From 1989 to 1991, mass protests emerged across the communist world, toppling governments and leading to regime change. Which communist country had a mass protest, but one that failed to bring regime change?
In the Soviet Union and in Mao's China, what was the consequence of the state shifting from market forces to central planning?
Shortages in industry and a massive famine
Communism envisioned complete economic, social, and political equality between men and women. The reality under communist rule was that
while laws changed, society did not; traditional patterns of sexism persisted inside and outside the home.
Communism is an ideology that seeks to create human equality by eliminating
private property and market forces.
Lenin led a communist revolution in Russia in 1917; he changed Marx's original theory by
arguing that revolution could be carried out in less developed countries if led by a "vanguard of the proletariat."
Marx believed that history reflected a trend, not toward evolution, but rather toward revolution; at each major point in history, the existing order (the thesis) would be confronted by new technology, generating a challenge to this order (the antithesis). Ultimately, this challenge would culminate in a revolution, where the old order is overthrown and a new one put in place (the synthesis). What is this process known as?
Marx was highly critical of ________, which he argued was used to legitimize poverty and inequality.
In China, Mao broke with Marxism and Leninism by
focusing on the peasantry instead of the working class.
Marx predicted that, following the final revolution, the system of government that would emerge in the communist utopia would be a
Communist parties used co-optation to maintain control. This can been seen most clearly in the nomenklatura, which involved
staffing jobs in the state, government, and society with people approved by the Party
The transition toward democracy has been more successful in Eastern Europe than in the former Soviet Union, partly because Eastern European countries
adopted parliamentary systems, whereas the former Soviet Union favored strong presidencies.
For Marxists, the ________ is the economic system of a society, which is made up of the technology (the means of production) and class relations (the relations of production).
Regarding economic transitions, what does marketization refer to?
re-creating market forces of supply and demand
Marx and most other communists rejected liberal democracy because they claimed that it
deluded the people into thinking they had a say in politics when, in fact, only the wealthy had control.
In many postcommunist countries, __________ was undeveloped, so establishing it was a significant democratic challenge.
the rule of law
Literally meaning "restructuring," ________ was one of Gorbachev's major reforms during the 1980s. It included political and economic liberalization.
In communist parties, the ________ acts as a type of legislative body.
Under ______, a leader distributes the benefits of the state to a small group of key supporters and holds the rest of the society in check by the use of force.
A scholar who argues that nondemocracy tends to emerge in countries with poor and uneducated populations fits best with which approach?
Under what conditions is military rule most likely to emerge?
At times when governments are struggling with legitimacy and stability, especially during periods of mass protest, the military may intervene to restore order.
Under bureaucratic authoritarianism, the military and the state bureaucracy believe that the problems of the country can be solved by
rational, technical expertise rather than emotional ideology or public participation.
In communist systems such as Cuba or China, the government has created and controls a single labor union, but all independent unions are banned. This is an example of a state seeking to control its population by using
When we compare the types of government over the last 40 years, we find that the number of
nondemocracies has dramatically declined.
Illiberal regimes are growing in prominence around the world. What sets them apart from other nondemocracies?
They have some features of democracy, but with important qualifications
Which of the following is a defining feature of nondemocratic regimes?
The government is not constitutionally responsible to the public.
Which of the following examples can be described as totalitarian?
the Soviet Union under Stalin
Co-optation is the appropriate term for the situation in which the state seeks to control its population by
establishing a beneficial relationship with the people.
Totalitarian regimes possess a highly centralized state and a regime with a well-defined ideology that seeks to transform and fuse the institutions of state, society, and the economy. These systems emerge only rarely; of the following, the only regime that could truly be described as totalitarian is
Cultural arguments hold that democracy requires a society that emphasizes
individualism and secularism.
________ lacks a consistent ideological foundation; instead, it emphasizes hostility toward elites and established states institutions and the need for people to "take back" the state.
Another commonly used term for nondemocratic rule is
Kleptocracy, or "rule by theft," may be thought of as an extreme example of
Nondemocratic regimes often compel individuals by threatening harm to their lives and livelihoods. This is known as
One-party systems like China prefer to use ________ as the primary mechanism to ensure compliance and support.
States with an abundance of oil or minerals often struggle with democratic development for a number of reasons. This is known as
The "resource trap" theory
In North Korea, the Kim Dynasty has been elevated to a quasi-religious status and citizens are expected to keep pictures of their leaders in a importance place in their home. This is an example of
A personality cult
Because the government is headed by a religious leader, some scholars have argued that Iran is best described as a
Federal systems like the United States and Germany tend to have ________ legislatures.
Democracy can be defined as political power exercised either indirectly or directly through
participation, competition, and liberty.
________ are one of the most fundamental elements of a functioning democracy. They enact policy, establish political accountability, ensure political competition, and act as political symbols that allow voters to navigate and participate in what can be complex political processes.
One major advantage of ________ systems is that the executive has the ability to draw on a national mandate to create and enact legislation.
Though they vary greatly from country to country in how they act and how much power they have, three key institutions in a democracy are
The executive, legislature, and judiciary
-All noneconomic institutions in a society
-These ideas and values derive from the base and serve to legitimize the current system of exploitation
The property-owning class
The working class
-Process of historical change that is not evolutionary but revolutionary
-The existing base and superstructure(thesis) would come into conflict with new tech innovations, generating growing opposition to the existing order (antithesis)
-This would culminate in revolution
-Overthrowing the old base and superstructure (synthesis)
Politically sensitive or influential jobs in the state, society, or economy that were staffed by people chosen or approved by the Communist Party
Vanguard of the proletariat
Lenin's argument that an elite communist party would have to carry out revolution, because as a result of false consciousness, historical conditions would not automatically lead to capitalism's demise
The legislature-like body of a communist party
The top policy-making and executive body of a communist party
A political system in which power flows directly from the ruling political party (usually a communist party) to the state, bypassing government structures
A communist economic system in which the state explicitly allocates resources by planning what should be produced and in what amounts, the final prices of goods, and where they should be sold
Literally, openness. The policy of political liberalization implemented in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s
Literally, restructuring; the policy of political and economic liberalization implemented in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s
A process of rapid marketization
-A political-economic system in which all wealth and property are shared so as to eliminate exploitation, oppression, and, ultimately, the need for political institutions such as the state
- A political ideology that advocates such a system
study of how the relationship between politics and economics shapes the balance of freedom and equality. States use several institutions to achieve their economic goals.
the interactions between the forces of supply and demand, or how goods and services are exchanged
the ownership of those goods and services
an institution designed to oversee the banking system and regulate the quantity of money in the economy
a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production
-emphasizes individual freedoms over collective equality and the power of markets over the state
-Favor free market and private property
-social democrats argue that markets should be checked by the state and that the state should provide more public goods—health care, unemployment and retirement benefits, public education, and others—to balance the inequalities that emerge from the market
emphasizes collective equality over individual freedom. The state controls all aspects of the market, including property, labor, and trade, and guarantees employment, health care, education, and other services.
favors neither freedom nor equality, instead focusing on economic growth to increase the power of the state. In a mercantilist system, the state strongly encourages some industries over others, usually establishes high tariffs on outside goods and services, and provides a lower level of social expenditure.
purchasing power parity (PPP), which is the buying power of income using the United States as a benchmark.
a mathematical formula that measures inequality and poverty
measures the overall well-being of a country's people.
cutting taxes, reducing regulation, privatizing state-owned businesses and public goods, and expanding property rights.
A system of social democratic policy making in which a limited number of organizations representing business and labor work with the state to set economic policy
A political system in which a small group of individuals exercises power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public
A political regime that is controlled by a small group of individuals who exercise power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public
A nondemocratic regime that is highly centralized, possessing some form of strong ideology that seeks to transform and absorb fundamental aspects of state, society, and the economy, using a wide array of institutions
Theory of development in which the existence of natural resources in a given state is a barrier to modernization and democracy
A political view that does not have a consistent ideological foundation, but that emphasizes hostility toward elites and established state and economic institutions and favors greater power in the hands of the public
A method of co-optation whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state
A process whereby the state co-opts members of the public by providing specific benefits or favors to a single person or a small group in return for public support
"Rule by theft," where those in power seek only to drain the state of assets and resources
An arrangement whereby a ruler depends on a collection of supporters within the state who gain direct benefits in return for enforcing the ruler's will
A system in which the state bureaucracy and the military share a belief that a technocratic leadership, focused on rational, objective, and technical expertise, can solve the problems of the country without public participation
Rule by an elected leadership through procedures of questionable democratic legitimacy
is the system whereby a state extends its power to directly control territory, resources, and people beyond its borders.
single political authorities that have, under their sovereignty, a large number of external regions or territories.
which involves a greater degree of physical occupation of a territory by settlers or the military
newly industrializing and less-developed countries were still dependent upon their former empires—a continuation of the unequal, imperialist structure
restricting imports in favor of locally produced goods, a policy that had little success and was criticized as prone to corruption.
-Domestic economy reoriented toward export
-Several Asian countries pursued a more successful policy of export-oriented industrialization focusing on producing goods that could be exported, but even those countries experienced a significant economic downturn in the 1990s.
A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy.
structural adjustment programs
These policies required the privatization of industries, shifts toward more open markets, and more encouragement of foreign investment; these reforms have been controversial and their results have been mixed.
-dominate weak states with widespread corruption
-economy where it is not regulated or taxed by the state
providing small loans to local people to allow them to start businesses
a broader spectrum of services, including credit, savings, insurance, and financial transfers
Prayer leaders in Iran's main urban mosques. Appointed by the Supreme Leader, they have considerable authority in the provinces.
Foundation of the Oppressed
A clerically controlled foundation set up after the revolution in Iran
Arabic term for "assembly"; used in Iran to describe the parliament.
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
2nd and current Supreme Leader of Iran, President 1981-89
newly industrialized countries that are experiencing rapid economic expansion and industrialization
Countries located on the edge of the world core that are seeking improved conditions for their residents through economic growth
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